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NEW ITEMS:


(2017 March): Work on the second book is nearing completion ... currently writing the final chapter. –CR


(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.


(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” has now been published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.


(2016 June):
New research paper The Nature of Gravitational Collapse has been published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!


Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19
 


(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.


(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.


The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.
 

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.

 


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) Now posted. Link to details:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
 


(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.
 


(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
 


(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.
 


LATEST RESEARCH PAPERS:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
-------------------------

"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------

"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------

Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.


The Dynamic Steady State Universe. This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer
(PDF download)



Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) Now posted. Link to details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Published 2016 January:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.

EXTERNAL LINKS:
Big Bang Never Happened –Home Page and Summary

Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are most interesting.
 

DSSU Theory:

Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those now facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham



The persecution of Marc Lemire, for merely expressing his reasoned opinion, continues. On October 2, 2012, (Canadian) Federal Court Judge Mosley upheld the constitutionality of the repressive Sec.13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act. This "Section 13" specifically hands over control of the Internet to the HRC thought police. “Marc Lemire Appeals outrageous ruling by the Federal Court on Section 13 censorship”
Two years later (2014), the abuse continues!
From a 2015 report of Marc Lemire’s 10-year struggle to preserve his right to freedom of speech: “Found guilty for publishing a document he did not write and didn’t even know existed on his website until he faced prosecution, Lemire faces a lifetime ban on his freedom of speech should he lose his last court appeal.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015



The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada has lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept



The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)



... about the author ...



© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
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2017 Mar 1

Visits since mid-2010 : Hit Counter

2017-3-1

 Michelson-Morley & the Story of the Aether Theory

by Richard Milton
2007

Ether --- a null result, or an anulled result?

Albert Michelson at Chicago University   The story of ether, or aether, is familiar to anyone who has studied the history of science and the seminal tale from the heroic age of physics of the Michelson-Morley experiment to establish whether or not light travels through a mysterious medium that fills space -- the ether.  Every high school physics student has taken down the same notes for more than a century:

1880. US physicist Albert Michelson invents the Michelson light interferometer -- an instrument that can measure the velocity of a beam of light with great accuracy by splitting it through a half-silvered mirror and then re-combining the beams.  If the recombined beams interfere with reach other, causing visible fringes on a screen, then one of them must have been delayed.

1887. Michelson and fellow American scientist Edward Morley build an interferometer with greater accuracy than ever before and use their instrument in a crucial experiment to determine whether light travels through the ether, or merely through the vacuum of empty space. The two physicists set up their instrument to measure the speed of a beam of light travelling in the same direction as the earth through space, and also a beam that travels at right angles to the earth’s direction of travel. If the ether exists there should be a minute – but measurable – drag effect on a beam of light that will delay it and show up as ‘interference fringes’ in the interferometer.  The experiment shows a 'null result' -- no matter how the interferometer is orientated with respect to the earth's movement, there is no measurable ether drag.

Edward Morley1905 - 1915.  This experimental finding throws physics into a quandary for a decade or more until Albert Einstein comes to the rescue with his Theory of Relativity. The ether does not exist, says Einstein, and light travels at constant velocity regardless of the speed of its source.  These findings and the ideas of relativity become the foundation stones of physics in the twentieth century and are universally accepted.

These are the notes taken by generations of students.  But, as Michelson and Morley’s experiment affected theoretical physics more than perhaps any experiments since Galileo and Newton, then one might expect its results to have been analysed with the utmost care and the experiment itself to have been replicated many times, establishing the 'null' result. 

Strangely, the real facts of the Michelson Morley experiment are the very opposite of this oft-told seminal tale. Michelson and Morley did not in fact obtain a null result in their original experiment.  They found a small, anomalous deviation from the expected value, but this finding was simply forgotten about. Few attempts have been made to replicate the experiment itself but several of them have also found experimental evidence for an ether. Most extraordinary of all is the series of experiments carried out over a 30 year period by Dayton Miller, from 1906 to the mid 1930s, using far more accurate apparatus than Michelson and Morley and which clearly and consistently showed an ether drift effect. But these results contradicted Einstein and Relativity, so they were first ignored and later, after Miller’s death, made the subject of a campaign of denigration.

The experiments of Michelson and Morley and of Dayton Miller, have been repeated and analysed in modern times by French engineer Maurice Allais, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economic Science in 1988.  It is primarily due to the work of Allais that Miller's discoveries have been brought to a modern audience. For further details see Allais website here.  The story of Dayton Miller and what happened to his findings has also been researched and told in considerable detail by Dr James De Meo, Director of the Orgone Biophysical Research Lab.  His research paper can be found here.

Albert Michelson became professor of physics at the newly-founded Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1882.  Here he met Edward Morley who was professor of chemistry at the neighbouring Western Reserve University. (Today, the two institutions are combined as Case Western University). Morley had several ideas for improving the Michelson Interferometer and in 1887 a new instrument was built in the basement of Western Reserve's Adelbert College in Cleveland.  The instrument consisted of a 1.5 meter square block of sandstone on which was mounted the optical apparatus.  The stone block rested on a wooden disk floating on mercury in a cast iron tank.  This made it possible to rotate the instrument through 360 degrees with virtually no vibration.  At each end of the arms of the apparatus were four mirrors to reflect the light beam back and forth repeatedly, thus effectively extending the path length for the beam to a total of 11 meters.

If the theory of a stationary ether through which the earth moved were correct, then pointing one arm of the apparatus in the direction of the earth's travel through space would produce a displacement of the observed pattern of interference fringes amounting to 0.4 of a fringe width.  The apparatus was sensitive enough to detect a displacement much smaller than this amount.

Michelson and Morley made observations with the instrument for one hour at noon on 8, 9 and 11 July 1887 and one hour in the evenings of 8, 9 and 12 July -- six hours in all.  In each session, the instrument was gradually turned through 36 rotations, readings being taken at every sixteenth of a turn.  Today, whenever and wherever the results of these six days of observations are reported -- whether in the popular press or professional scientific paper -- it is confidently said that the Michelson-Morley experiment produced a null result.  

The real facts were given in 1933 by Dayton C Miller who wrote, "The indicated effect was not zero; the sensitivity of the apparatus was such that the conclusions, published in 1887, stated that the observed relative motion of the earth and ether did not exceed one fourth of the earth's orbital velocity. This is quite different from a null effect now so frequently imputed to this experiment by writers on relativity."  (The italics emphasis is Miller's.)


   If these words had been written by a disgruntled amateur, they would merit little attention.  However, Dayton Miller (1866-1941) was a physics graduate from Princeton University, President of the American Physical Society and Acoustical Society of America, Chairman of the Division of Physical Sciences of the National Research Council, Chairman of the Physics Department of Case School of Applied Science (today Case Western Reserve University), and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.  Even more significantly, from 1902 onwards Miller began experiments with Edward Morley using more accurate instruments and whose own more accurate results clearly show an ether drift effect.

If these words had been written by a disgruntled amateur, they would merit little attention.  However, Dayton Miller (1866-1941) was a physics graduate from Princeton University, President of the American Physical Society and Acoustical Society of America, Chairman of the Division of Physical Sciences of the National Research Council, Chairman of the Physics Department of Case School of Applied Science (today Case Western Reserve University), and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.  Even more significantly, from 1902 onwards Miller began experiments with Edward Morley using more accurate instruments and whose own more accurate results clearly show an ether drift effect.

 How on earth did the 'null result' story come about?  In their paper of 1887, Michelson and Morley made an important qualification.  'In what precedes, only the orbital motion of the earth is considered.  If this is combined with the motion of the solar system, concerning which but little is known with certainty, the result would have to be modified; and it is just possible that the resultant velocity at the time of observations was small though the chances are much against it.  The experiment will therefore be repeated at intervals of three months, and thus all uncertainty will be avoided.'

Unfortunately, this repetition (which later was to prove to be very important) was never carried out.  In 1889, Michelson left the Case School, first for Clark University and then for University of Chicago where he remained for 38 years.  After 1889, Michelson's interferometry work centred on determining the unit of [standard] length for which he became world famous.

In the meantime, Einstein had published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, followed by his General Theory of Relativity in 1915.  His theory, which quickly attained widespread currency and a wide measure of support made two key assumptions; first that the speed of light is constant, regardless of the speed of the source, and second, that there is no ether at absolute rest with respect to moving objects such as the earth.  This second assumption is crucial.  It requires that the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment show a NULL result -- that there is absolutely NO difference in the passage of a light beam whatever its orientation with regard to the earth's motion. And it is from around this time that people began to speak of a 'null' result for Michelson-Morley.

Back at Case, Edward Morley and Dayton Miller continued the ether drift experiments.  A new instrument was constructed using steel girders with arms 4.3 meters long giving a light path that was effectively 32 meters long -- considerably longer and more accurate than that of the 1887 experiments.  In 1905, the new interferometer was moved to an unobstructed site on a hill in Cleveland Heights. Miller's reason for wanting a high point is important. If the ether exists, some of it may be carried along with the earth as it moves through it, in the same way that some air is carried along with an aircraft's wing.  This effect, named 'entrainment' could reduce the relative movement by an unknown amount at ground level -- perhaps a significant amount.   If entrainment occurred then a high point and no obstructions should reduce its effects. Miller thus wished to avoid concrete basements and dense covering materials which might affect his readings.  On Cleveland Heights some 230 observations were made in July, October and November 1905.  These showed a very definite positive displacement of fringes corresponding with the instrument being pointed in certain directions, but again too small to be reconciled with the ether theory.  For mainly funding reasons, research slowed and halted for a decade or more.

In 1919, an astronomical expedition to Equatorial Africa made observations of light from a star occulted by the sun during a total eclipse. The photographs appeared to shown bending of the starlight around the sun as predicted by Einstein and relativity theory thus received a major publicity boost, with words like 'scientific confirmation' appearing in daily newspapers.

Because it had now become central to progress in physics, Miller returned to experiments with the ether drift in 1921.  Albert Einstein visited Miller at Case on 25 May 1921 and urged him to undertake further experiments.  The same year, the Morley-Miller interferometer was transported across the continent to Mount Wilson observatory and set up at high altitude (1,750 meters above sea level).  67 sets of observations were taken which produced a positive experimental effect corresponding to a movement of earth relative to the ether of 10 kilometers per second.  The apparatus was returned to Cleveland and the experiments repeated again between 1922 and 1924 with the same results.

Again in 1925 and 1926, unobstructed observations were made at high altitude at Mount Wilson.  This time, Miller had a brainwave.  All previous observations had been made based on the assumption that the earth's velocity through the ether was known -- that it was the resultant of the earth's orbital movement around the sun and the motion of the solar system towards the constellation Hercules.  But what if we take the interferometer readings at face value -- as telling us the actual motion of the earth?

During 1925-26 an enormous number of new readings were taken and computed resulting in some 250,000 observations.  Miller presented the results of analysing this mass of data to a conference in February 1927. The point on the celestial sphere towards which the earth moves through its absolute motion is named its apex of motion.  Based on the mass of data accumulated, Miller announced to the conference that he had calculated the earth's apex of motion as lying in the northern celestial hemisphere at Right Ascension  17 hours and Declination +68 degrees.

In 1932, Miller revisited the calculations to consider the possibility that he had correctly calculated the axis of the earth's movement through space but had got the wrong direction.  His recalculation suggested that an apex of movement in the southern celestial hemisphere was more probable and was finally determined to lie at Right Ascension 4 hours 54 minutes and Declination -70 degrees 33 minutes, in the constellation of Dorado (the Swordfish).  Moreover, Miller devised a technique that enabled him to estimate the absolute velocity of the earth's motion as being some 208 kilometers per second.  He was also able to determine from the data that the disc of the solar system was tilted up almost at right angles against the direction of motion.  He wrote, 

'This suggests that the solar system might be thought of as a dynamic disc that is being pulled through a resisting medium, and which therefore sets itself perpendicular to the line of motion.'

A number of other attempts were made to replicate Miller's findings, some with small positive readings, some with close to zero.  These included an experiment by R J Kennedy in 1926 on Mount Wilson with the interferometer sealed in helium; an interferometer sealed in a vacuum casing and sent up by balloon to 2,500 meters in 1927; and an interferometer mounted inside a temperature-constant vault at Mount Wilson by Michelson himself in 1929.  Displacements in each case were almost zero.  However, Miller noted that in each case the instrument was enclosed in metal casings or in a basement room.  He believed that such "opaque" shielding nullified the experimental effect. [The source of the problem was not the metal casing but the mere fact that the light was travelling through a vacuum or near-vacuum. -CR]

Until his death in 1941, Miller's findings remained uncomfortably in the scientific background -- impossible to refute, equally impossible to accept, since they fatally undermined Einstein's Relativity which by now had become universally accepted in physics.   After Miller's death his former student Robert S. Shankland, became Chairman of the Physics Department at Case Western Reserve University. According to James de Meo, 'Shankland's academic career soared after he organized a post-mortem on Miller's work, pronouncing it worthless, and after Einstein later granted him a series of widely-published interviews. Shankland subsequently became a bureaucrat within the emerging atomic energy infrastructure. Intimate with Einstein, in a 1981 interview Shankland claimed Miller's work on ether-drift had probably cost Einstein the Nobel Prize for relativity theory (Einstein did later get a Nobel Prize, but for his other theoretical work).'

Shankland and three other authors published a paper in 1955 which, on the surface, was a critical review and re-analysis of Miller's long and painstaking observations.  In reality, there was no review and no re-analysis; simply a trawl through the data looking for possible sources of error.  Moreover, neither Shankland nor his fellow authors actually did any of the work on which the paper was based.  Instead this was left to one of Shankland's students who received no credit beyond a footnote.  The 1955 Shankland paper begins with the statement that has been repeated so often since, that Michelson and Morley obtained a "null" result. The paper also claimed that "All trials of this experiment except those carried out at Mount Wilson by Dayton C. Miller yielded a null result within the accuracy of the observations." 

Says James de Meo, 'This kind of chronic misrepresentation of the slight positive results of many interferometer experimenters, including Michelson-Morley, Morley-Miller, Sagnac, Michelson-Gale, and Michelson-Pease-Pearson, suggests an extreme bias and deliberate misrepresentation. The fact that this is a very popular bias does not excuse it. By redefining all the positive results observed by what may in fact have been the majority of ether-drift researchers, as mere expressions of "observational inaccuracy", Shankland narrowed his task considerably'

In the end, Shankland and his team settled on the notion of seasonal temperature variations as being responsible for Miller's findings.  There was no longer anyone alive to point out how fatuous this explanation is and Miller's data was safely interred along with his body. As far as orthodox science is concerned today, relativity is universally accepted and the ether controversy is dead and buried. 

A curious footnote

James de Meo points out a curious semantic footnote to this affair.  The name for the hypothetical medium through which light was thought to travel has been spelled in two ways: as 'ether' and also as 'aether'.  In late medieval times when the word was coined it was spelled aether.  In the period 1850-1920 when the topic was current in physics and used regularly by physicists such as Sir Oliver Lodge, Michael Faraday, Nicola Tesla, Michelson and Morley, and even by Einstein, the term was spelled 'ether'.  In the 1950s, after Miller's death, when a concerted effort was being made to denigrate his work, the medieval 'aether' spelling suddenly re-appeared.  On the face of it, the use of this spelling was to avoid confusion with the anaesthetic fluid ether.  But it also appears to have been part of an attempt to “relegate the ether of space into ancient history, as an unproven speculation similar to Aristotelian elements of ‘fire, air, water and earth’.”

* * *

(The above article by Richard Milton appears on the Cellular Universe website with the generous consent of its author.  The original was published on the Alternative Science website at www.alternativescience.com, which is now inactive.)

Back to: The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology

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