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NEW ITEMS:


(2017 March): Work on the second book is nearing completion ... currently writing the final chapter. –CR


(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.


(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” has now been published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.


(2016 June):
New research paper The Nature of Gravitational Collapse has been published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!


Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19
 


(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.


(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.


The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.
 

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.

 


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) Now posted. Link to details:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
 


(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.
 


(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
 


(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.
 


LATEST RESEARCH PAPERS:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
-------------------------

"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------

"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------

Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.


The Dynamic Steady State Universe. This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer
(PDF download)



Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) Now posted. Link to details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Published 2016 January:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.

EXTERNAL LINKS:
Big Bang Never Happened –Home Page and Summary

Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are most interesting.
 

DSSU Theory:

Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those now facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham



The persecution of Marc Lemire, for merely expressing his reasoned opinion, continues. On October 2, 2012, (Canadian) Federal Court Judge Mosley upheld the constitutionality of the repressive Sec.13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act. This "Section 13" specifically hands over control of the Internet to the HRC thought police. “Marc Lemire Appeals outrageous ruling by the Federal Court on Section 13 censorship”
Two years later (2014), the abuse continues!
From a 2015 report of Marc Lemire’s 10-year struggle to preserve his right to freedom of speech: “Found guilty for publishing a document he did not write and didn’t even know existed on his website until he faced prosecution, Lemire faces a lifetime ban on his freedom of speech should he lose his last court appeal.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015



The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada has lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept



The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)



... about the author ...



© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
16th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2017 Mar 1

Visits since mid-2010 : Hit Counter

2017-3-1

The Universe is Infinite (Part 2)

How a universe can always have existed and will always exist

Conrad Ranzan
2010

Conventional Opposing Argument

The conventional argument against an infinitely aged universe goes like this:
(i) The contrary position is taken as the argument's starting premise; that is, an infinitely old universe is temporarily assumed. (ii) It is then shown that such a premise leads to a logical contradiction, thereby, (iii) invalidating the starting premise.

Let's look at the details. The starting premise is that the universe is infinite in time (or equivalently that it is infinitely old). And since all things must have a beginning we also assume that the universe along with time, of course, began in the infinite past. (If the reader rejects any, and all, notions of a beginning, rest assured, such a repudiation will be considered later.) ... Essentially the the premise is that the universe began infinitely long ago.

Kant's Famous Argument Against an Infinite Past

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) reasoned that the universe cannot be unlimited in past time  because that would mean that an infinite number of events or succession of states of the world must have occurred. But since infinity can never be attained "by successive synthesis," the hypothesis of an eternal universe has to be false. [1]

But infinity is mercilessly uncompromising.

Infinity is deceptively unattainable. If there was (or more properly if we imagine) a universe genesis in the ultimate remote past —infinitely long ago— then there is simply no way to arrive at the present, the present-and-very-real, Universe. No way for the "present" of the past to have traversed the infinite time-span between the alleged start-of-the-universe event and the physical present.

The assumption that a genesis occurred in the infinite past leads to the absurd conclusion that the present —our here-and-now— cannot exist. It means, we can't get TO the present and yet here we are IN the present, thinking and discussing the infinity question (to pluralize a famous dictum, "We think therefore we are").  It means, the above step (iii) has been fulfilled  —the starting premise has been invalidated.

Logic demands that the time span from genesis (any sort of genesis) to the present must be finite! —no matter how great the time span! —no matter how far back we imagine genesis occurred! It simply cannot be otherwise. ... Logic is just as uncompromising as is infinity.

And so, the premise must be wrong and must be rejected. Thus the universe did not begin in the infinite past.

So far, so good.

Now comes the tricky part. If the conclusion is that "the universe did not begin in the infinite past", can the conclusion be interpreted to mean that the universe had its beginning in the finite past? The conventional wisdom says that if the infinite past is ruled out then the universe must be of finite age. And the conventional wisdom of the philosophers has for a long time been backed by practicing astrophysicists. Moreover, the revolution in cosmology that spanned the 20th century practically demanded the adoption of this extended conclusion. Just look at the universe models constructed during that period. Some versions of the Big Bang have a singular beginning (called a singularity) said to have occurred roughly 15 Giga years ago. Other versions oscillate between epochal periods of explosive expansion and implosive contraction; and, presumably, were birthed from a mother-of-all big bangs.

But, are philosopher-physicists truly justified in accepting the extended conclusion? ... Or have they  missing something? Have they overlooked some other possibility?

Four Possible Premises

Not two, but four possible premises

The problem is that the starting premise and its alternate are both wrong —both lead to paradoxes.

The assumption that the universe actually had a beginning —whether in the infinite past or the finite past— is wrong. Entirely wrong.

Kant also recognized this when he craftily advanced arguments that discredited both alternatives. On the one hand there is the problem of an unattainable infinite succession and on the other, if the universe came into existence at some particular moment in time, then there must have been a time before it existed (Kant called this "void time"). But then he argued, obscurely, that nothing can originate in a void time.[2]  Unfortunately, what weakens his argument is that Kant seems to believe that time has some sort of independent existence (a sort of absoluteness quality). In DSSU theory[3] 'time' does not have independent existence;  'time' is simply an arbitrary and convenient concept for comparing motions, comparing increments of one motion with the increments of another. Motion is what determines existence, not time. Nevertheless, we will continue to use the term "time" with its everyday meaning.

No. What the model makers of the past have overlooked is that there are four possible assumptions —four premises from which to attempt to construct a realistic universe. The chart below shows all the available options.

 


How the universe came/comes into existence. There are 4 ways to configure a genesis for the universe. The conventional debate over the time-wise infinity of the universe has given rise to the first two options shown above. The 3rd option is the null configuration —a universe that neither came nor comes into existence. Inspired by (and compatible with) the new cellular cosmology, the last choice (on the right) involves a steady-state process of continuous genesis. The 4th option supports a logically consistent infinite universe.

 

The first option, as we have seen, leads to a logical impossibility.

The second option leads to its own absurdities: the obvious missing cause; the problem of prior nonexistence; the very meaning of nonexistence as applied to the universe.

A No-Genesis Universe (the null option)

To assume that the universe had no genesis means that either (i) the universe is componentless and does not exist, or (ii) the universe and its components have always existed. The first obviously contradicts the evidence. The second fails to make a fundamental distinction between "the universe" and the components.
     If one selects the interpretation that the no-genesis universe has always existed, then it follows that such a universe is time-wise INFINITE. But, of course, then one is confronted with, and defeated by, Kant's famous argument.

If we think of the 4 choices as methods for conceptually generating a generic universe then the 3rd selection represents the null option. ... The third option, we may immediately recognize, is quite contrary to the evidence on the one hand, and runs into the Kant argument on the other. See the adjacent textbox.

The fourth option, to the best of my knowledge, has never been explored prior to the emergence of the Fifth Cosmology.[4]

The fourth option:  Instead of postulating a genesis in the infinite past or postulating one in the finite past, this option hypothesizes a continuous genesis.

What do I mean by "continuous genesis"? ... I mean that the universe is perpetually undergoing a process of continuous regeneration —an infinitely continuous genesis.  I mean that the universe has a continuous overlapping existence. The Universe has ALWAYS existed while its essence and its components are continuously "regenerating."

Continuous-Genesis Universe

The Continuous-Genesis universe is compellingly natural. It is remarkably compatible with the observable cosmos. And this compatibility is not dependent on the philosophically incomprehensible hypothesis of an expanding universe. A speculative big bang scenario is not require for a perpetually regenerating universe.

Best of all, and the main point of the discussion, is that the Continuous-Genesis universe is unambiguously temporally infinite.

Now for the checkmate argument. First let me invoke DSSU theory and be quite specific as to the meaning of "regenerating": It means "the essence and components of the universe are continuously regenerating"; mass and energy particles, as well as aether units, are continually being replaced.  I must emphasis that "regenerating" does not  in any way imply a universe that is cyclical or in some way recycling itself. Rather, it is a one-way (one directional) process by which entities form or precipitate from the essence-substance of the universe. It involves the Primary Process of the Universe. For more details on this, see the Physics Essays article, The Dynamic Steady State Universe.[5]

The "regenerating of the essence substance" means —and this is of fundamental importance— the growth or expansion of aether (an observable, detectable, phenomenon). And "regenerating of the components of the universe" means the spontaneous formation of the most-fundamental particles and their subsequent aggregation into hierarchical structures all the way up to galaxy clusters.

Now, in addition to the formation/creation processes there is another aspect to the notion of regenerating. There is the balancing negation of what has been formed/created. Do not think of this as being cyclical; the processes are continuous and simultaneous (although they occur in spatially separate regions). And rest assured there need be no violation of the conservation of energy law and no violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

In other words, the Continuous-Creation universe is also a Continuous-Annihilation universe. ... But the paramount driver of the universe is the Primary Process.

Essentially it is the Primary Process (missing in other models of the universe) that allows me to expand the claim attributed to the Continuous-Genesis universe and say that it is unambiguously and inevitably  temporally infinite!

The New Infinite Cosmology

Important Points (and the Emergence of a New Cosmology)

The traditional argument, the one 'proving' that an infinitely old universe is impossible, only applies to a "simply created" universe. The argument does not apply to a "continuously created" universe.

The New Cosmology model, the DSSU, is a continuous-formation universe. The formation processes are balanced by  harmoniously opposite processes. There exists a perpetual harmony of opposites as was proposed by Heraclitus thousands of years ago. And whatever is perpetual is, by definition, infinite. The DSSU is time-wise infinite.

Another important point is that the Continuous-Creation with Continuous-Annihilation universe involves oppositely dynamic processes. What happens when opposing steady-state dynamic processes interact? The answer represents the key to understanding the  apparently phenomenological universe on its largest scale. The answer is, the opposing dynamic processes form cells —they form the cosmic cells of voids surrounded by galaxy clusters. They sustain the cosmic cells that have long been observed by astronomers but heretofore were unsupported by a compelling theory.

Philosophical Connections

Look again at the four options presented in the chart, above. For each option consider its opposing part or opposing process. (i) Genesis in the infinite past is opposed by an end-event in the infinite future. Now note that, obviously, there can never be any unity or synthesis between these conflicting opposites. (ii) Genesis in the finite past is opposed, presumably, by an end-event in the finite future. But these opposites can never be in true harmony (there can be no interactive harmony) because they occur separately and sequentially. (iii) The opposing part of the 3rd option is trivially sterile. A non-beginning is countered by a non-ending. (iv) With the final option, continuous creation is opposed by continuous annihilation. Here we have a dynamic unity of opposites. In fact, the fourth option embodies the ultimate harmony of opposites.

The basic notion of the relationship between opposites can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) wrote of a vague unity of opposites, "the knowledge of opposites is one." [6]  Heraclitus of Ephesus (c.536-470 BCE) espoused a doctrine of "the harmony of opposites." It was a  powerful principle and, through the ages, was adopted by other philosophers. One was Georg Hegel (1770-1831) who held that truth is an organic unity of opposed parts or processes.[7]  From this Hegelian perspective, the 4th option represents a dynamic unity of continuous formation/creation and opposing continuous destruction/annihilation.

Hegel, as well as the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte[8] (1762-1814), embraced the strongest version of the harmony of opposites that I have ever encountered.

“... Fichte was right —thesis, antithesis and synthesis constitute the formula and secret of all development and all reality." –Will Durant[9]

The 4th option represents all reality, all existence, through a thesis, antithesis, and synthesis of its processes.

Future of the Fourth Option

The superiority of the 4th option is unquestionable. The  4th option in conjunction with the cellular-universe theory (DSSU theory) is a formidable cosmic imperative of crystalline clarity.

Together, the 4th option and the DSSU represent a powerful problem-free cosmology. Together, they represent a rejection of the radical approach to cosmology taken during the 20th century while retaining the unassailable core pillar of all modern cosmology. (The core pillar of all modern cosmology is, of course, the expansion of space, or expansion of the vacuum. It is not the expansion of the universe. No, the "pillar of universe expansion" is a fairy-tale castle constructed on the unsound belief in a single cosmic genesis.)

The New Cosmology with its steady-state Continuous-Creation feature represents the fifth revolution in the history of cosmology.[4]   

 

 

2010-09  rev2015-7                    Copyright by Conrad Ranzan          E-mail:   Ranzan@CellularUniverse.org

www.CellularUniverse.org

 

References and Notes

  1. ^ Paul Davies, About Time, Einstein's Unfinished Revolution (Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, 1995) p186
  2. ^ Ibid. p186
  3. ^ DSSU is the acronym for Dynamic Steady State Universe. It is a model based on the premise that all things are processes. The Dynamic Steady State Universe is a cosmology theory of a spatially infinite cellular universe.
  4. ^ Chronology of the five major cosmologies: The 1st cosmology was the universe ruled by Gods. The 2nd was the Geocentric universe ruled by Natural Laws. The 3rd was the Heliocentric universe. The 4th was the Expanding universe. Finally, the Fifth cosmology is the Non-Expanding Cellular universe.
     
  5. ^ C. Ranzan, (prepared in 2013) The Dynamic Steady State Universe. Physics Essays Vol.27, No.2, pp.286-315 (2014) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4006/0836-1398-27.2.286
  6. ^  Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy (Doubleday, Toronto, Canada, 1927) p321
  7. ^  Ibid., p322
  8. ^  Fichte was a friend of Emmanuel Kant
  9. ^  W. Durant, The Story of Philosophy, p322
 

2010-09


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