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 Glossary of Terms

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H   I   L  M  N  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W

Definitions are the guardians of rationality, the first line of defense against the chaos
 of mental disintegration.
–Ayn Rand, famous objectivist philosopher

  A

Absorption line: a more or less narrow range, of wavelengths in a spectrum, that is darker than neighboring wavelengths. Absorption lines are seen in the analysis of light from stars.

Aether:  (1) The original ether:  In Aristotelian physics, the fifth element, the quintessence, of which the ‘heavens’ are made. In classical physics, the invisible medium that diffuses all space.
   (2) The historic:  The material medium that fills the apparent emptiness of the universe. Invented by René Descartes, Isaac Newton, and reinvented by many others, including James Clerk Maxwell who used it for his electromagnetic theory; but was discredited and discarded by Einstein.
   (3) The DSSU aether:  The subquantum medium that permeates all space. It is the nonmaterial essence of the Universe; it consists of essence units (or precursors) —fundamental essence-fluctuators, or essence oscillators. As a basic space medium, it serves as the propagator of electromagnetic waves. As a dynamic-space medium, it manifests gravitation in its two observable forms.
Aether was detected and verified in at least six separate experiments during the 20th century.

Aether deprivation: The termination process by which matter is extinguished. Matter does not, and cannot, exist in the absence of aether. When matter finds itself in a region of insufficient aether flow, a situation that can only arise at the bottom of a gravity well (sink) powerful enough to possess an event horizon, it ceases to exist.

Anisotropic:   the property of being different in certain directions.  See isotropy.

Anisotropy:  the observable difference between different directions.

Anti-gravity:   the ‘repulsive’ effect produced by the expansion of the aether medium.

Antiparticles: are the by-products of collisions of particles in high energy interactions (e.g., near neutron stars and black holes) and often detected in cosmic rays.

Assimilation of aether: by this process, mass & energy are able to ‘contract’ the space medium, thereby pulling-in the surrounding space medium. In the context of the DSSU gravity theory, this is called primary gravity (and leads to secondary effects).
 

  B

Baryon: a massive 'elementary' particle made up of three quarks. Neutrons and protons are baryons.

Big Bang (BB):  an expansionary model in which an explosion-like event initiated the universe.

BBI:  expansionary and inflationary model of the universe; a universe that has at least one episode of abnormally high rate of space expansion. (Generically, a universe which becomes diluted with too much space.)

Blackbody: an object with a constant temperature that absorbs all radiation that hits it.

Black hole:
 According to the conventional view, it is any gravitating object, or region, possessing an event horizon (a “surface” from which the escape velocity exceeds the speed of light). In terms of general relativity, the space around a black hole reaches infinite curvature, and the interior tends to infinite density.

Black hole (mathematical): A black hole is a mathematical construction associated with a point mass of some specified magnitude, a point mass called a singularity. Differs from the usual treatment of mass in the following way: In conventional gravitation calculations, the mass body is assumed to merely act as if it were concentrated at a point (its center of mass); but for a black hole, the mass supposedly exists, in its entirety, at the center point!

Black hole (singularity): A black hole for which all of its mass is concentrated at a single central point. It does not exist except as a mathematical object.

Black star: another term for superneutron star.

Bubble Universe:  used interchangeably with unit-universe, cosmic cell, and dodecahedral universe. They each refer to one of the cells of the Cellular Universe.

  C

CMB: Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, also CMBR, CBR and the “3 K blackbody radiation.”
   (1) In BB cosmology: Radiation left over from the hot Big Bang which has cooled by expansion to a temperature slightly less than 3 degrees above absolute zero.
   (2) In new cosmology: ultra distant starlight redshifted from a nominal 5800 K down to about 3 K.

Containment Principle: (1) In standard cosmology: the physical universe contains everything that is physical, and nothing else.
   (2) In the new cosmology: the universe contains everything that is physical, as well as a non-material, non-energy, essence medium, and nothing else.

Contraction 'field':  the region, surrounding a mass body, in which aether is contracted, in a process of self-dissipation.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR or CBR): A nearly uniform flux of microwave emission coming from all directions of the cosmos; with an intensity corresponding approximately to a black-body curve.
   (1) The 2.7 K temperature and anisotropic properties approximate those ‘predicted’ by the BB model as having been generated by photons released from the big bang when the universe was less than one million years old.
   (2) In the new cosmology: the 2.7 K CBR is the radiation received from distant galaxies (emitting light at a peak intensity temperature of about 5800 K) after being redshifted by a z-factor of 2000 during a journey of 123,000MLY.

Cosmic gravity: In the context of the DSSU cosmology, cosmic gravity is the acceleration of the aether flow in the cosmic voids where the dynamic flow has a radially diverging pattern.  Cosmic gravity acts in that portion of the unified gravitational 'field' where comoving trajectories (of objects) are diverging. It is the Lambda force/effect. See also normal gravity.

Cosmic theory: The attempt to explain our existence and experiences as caused by observed and unobserved entities and processes.
Cosmism: a philosophy of the cosmos.

Cosmogony:   the study of cosmic evolution; any theory of the origin of the universe or one of its component systems, such as star clusters, galaxies, and superclusters.

Cosmological Constant (denoted by the Greek letter Λ):
   (1) Traditionally, it is the multiplicative constant for a term proportional to the metric in Einstein’s general relativity equation relating the curvature of space to energy-momentum. When positive it represents space expansion and potentially leads to an acceleration of the expansion of the universe.
   (2) In the new cosmology it represents the expansion of aether, but has nothing to do with Universe expansion. In other words, the space medium expands, but the Universe does not.

Cosmological Principle:  states that the universe, on the large scale, is homogeneous and isotropic; that is, uniform in all places and in all directions. Spatial homogeneity. See also perfect cosmological principle.

Cosmologist:  one who studies cosmology, the science of the universe.

Cosmology: (1) the general science of the cosmos or material universe, its structures, its composition, and its laws. Combines astronomy, astrophysics, particle physics, and mathematics to assemble the knowledge into a world picture. (2) A particular cosmological theory. The DSSU theory is the 5th cosmology.

Cosmology revolutions: The 1st revolution in cosmology occurred when chaos was transformed into the conceptual Universes ruled by Gods. The 2nd revolution occurred when the universe ruled by gods was replaced by the Universe ruled by Natural Laws. The 3rd revolution, known as the Copernican revolution, saw the overthrow of the Geocentric by the Heliocentric Universe. The 4th revolution involved the overthrow of the STATIC unchanging universe by the EXPANDING universe. Finally, the 5th cosmology revolution is the overthrow of the Expanding-Universe paradigm by the Non-Expanding Cellular Universe.

Cosmos (from the Greek word kosmos for order and beauty):  The Universe as an embodiment of a system of order and harmony.

Critical Density:  (1) In the BB model it is the matter/energy density of the universe at which the universe balances between continued expansion and re-collapse.
(2) In the DSSU it is the matter/energy density at which a defined region of space (the interface region) experiences a balance between aether inflow (from the Voids) and aether contraction.

Critical-state neutron star: see Superneutron star.
Critical-state star: Any star which, during the course of gravitational contraction, has acquired an event horizon.

Curvature of Space:
 refers to the mathematical representation of the real distortion of space or aether-space.  The 3 types of curvature: spherical, flat (Euclidean), and hyperbolic. 

  D

Dark Matter:  the exotic ingredient required by the BB model; a form of matter that does not emit, absorb, or scatter any light. Its only interactions are gravitational. Has never been detected and remains elusive.

Declination (Dec.):  angular distance north or south of the celestial equator.

Deduction: process of reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from a given premise or premises, without the need for additional information.

Dodecahedron:  a twelve-sided ‘solid’ polyhedron. In a regular dodecahedron each side consists of a pentagon. The rhombic dodecahedron is irregular, but symmetrical, and has identical rhombus faces.

Doppler effect:  the change in the observed frequency (and wavelength) of an acoustic or electromagnetic wave due to relative motion of source and observer. Named after the 19th century physicist credited with its discovery.

DSSU:  Dynamic Steady State Universe.

DSSU Theory:  the cosmology theory that holds that the space medium (a nonmaterial aether) is dynamic and that it expands and contracts regionally and equally resulting in a cosmic-scale cellularly-structured universe. It is defined by four fundamental processes which provide a rationally coherent account of the major phenomena of our Universe. 

  E

Electromagnetic field: a region, surrounding a positive or negative charge, in which a process of aether annihilation by absorption-conduction sustains a radial pattern of excitation.

Electromagnetic force: one of the four forces of nature. Electromagnetic interactions hold electrons in atoms, hold atoms in molecules, and are important in all electronic devices.

Electroweak: a unified force that combines the electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions. Predicted by Weinberg and Salam, experimentally verified by Rubbia and van der Meer.

Emission line: a more or less narrow range of wavelengths in a spectrum that is brighter than neighboring wavelengths. Emission lines are seen in the light from certain astronomical objects such as quasars.

Energy: (1) the capacity to do work. (2) Manifestation of a particular kind of force.

Energy  process: Any localized quantitative change in aether units. Energy, both mass-energy and radiation-energy, at the most fundamental level is manifest in the absorption-annihilation of units of the space medium (defined as a nonmaterial aether). Without this active process, neither mass nor radiation can exist.

Entropy: is an increase in disorder, a trend towards thermal equilibrium. It represents a decrease in the useable forms of energy. For a closed or an isolated system, entropy is not conserved; it is increasing all the time.

(1)    In standard cosmology the source of low entropy is the expansion of the entire universe. The entropy is said to be forever increasing for the universe as a whole, however, this increase is incompatible with the BB accelerating universe and actually leads to a paradox.

(2)    In the new cosmology the Universe is NOT a closed system: the source of low entropy is the perpetual expansion of the space medium. Entropy increases in the usual manner, while entropy simultaneously decreases in the SU-AN process. Each cosmic cell behaves somewhat as a subsystem.

Essence fluctuators: are the discrete units of the essence medium, the medium that we equate with a non-ponderable aether. They are the quanta, more specifically, of a nonmaterial, non-energy, aether. (A vitally important concept in DSSU theory.)
Essence medium:
A synonymous term for aether. The non-material, non-energy, medium that permeates all space; consists of subquantum essence-fluctuators.
Essence medium (supplementary): the substrate of the universe. Consists of fundamental fluctuators. Historically rooted in the “nonponderable”, non-material, non-energy aether which Einstein expounded in his 1920 Leyden lecture.

Euclidean space:  space which is not curved (not distorted). Aether-space that is neither expanding nor contracting.

Escape velocity: the minimum velocity, with respect to the gravitating body, that will allow an object to escape from a gravitational ‘pull’ (or field).

Event horizon: the boundary at which the speed of aether flow, with respect to the center of the gravitating structure or region, is equal to the speed of light. There are two types: (i) The quasi-solid event horizon is associated with superneutron stars. (ii) The free-space event horizon is associated with supermassive black holes.

  F

Fifth cosmology: The DSSU is the 5th cosmology. It is called the 5th cosmology because of its emergence as the 5th revolution in cosmology —a revolution of the overthrow of the Expanding-Universe paradigm by the Non-Expanding Cellular universe. See Cosmology revolutions.

Flat space:
 space which is not curved. Aether-space is neither expanding nor contracting.

Fundamental energy: see energy process.

Fundamental fluctuators: see essence fluctuators

  G

Galactic cluster:  an open cluster of stars. Not the same thing as a cluster of galaxies.

GLY:  Giga-Lightyears.  Or billion Light Years.  But the term ‘billion’ is often avoided because of a potential confusion:  In Canada and the United States it means a thousand million (1,000,000,000); while in Britain and Germany it refers to a million million (1,000,000,000,000).

Grand Unification Theory (GUT):  a theory that unifies the electromagnetic force with the nuclear forces (weak, strong) into a single interaction. Several have been proposed, but none experimentally verified.

Gravitational lensing:  the creation of a distorted image of a distant galaxy or object when its light is focused by the gravity effect of a galaxy located between it (the distant source-galaxy) and the observer. In the DSSU, gravitational lensing is caused by the aether contracting 'field' surrounding the particular intervening galaxy.

Gravitation processes: (1) the direct absorption or assimilation of aether by all mass and all radiation; this process is the primary cause of gravitation. (2) a process of the self-extinction of the space medium; the indirect contraction of aether by means of space contraction regions (commonly called gravitation “fields”); this process is the secondary cause of gravity. (These processes also produce the property of mass and inertial mass.)

Gravitation, DSSU theory of: (1) Gravitation is the effect produced by the acceleration of aether-space itself towards the center of mass. (2) Gravity is caused primarily by the direct assimilation of the space medium by matter. By this process of assimilation, matter acts upon the medium —pulling-in the surrounding aether. (3) Gravity is caused secondarily by the contraction of aether within a surrounding contraction field —a region where the medium self-dissipates and literally disappears. The intensity of contraction has an inverse relationship to radial distance. (4) A unique feature of DSSU gravity is the presence of a distinct zero-gravity point —at each cosmic void center. (5) The expansion of aether in each cosmic void also produces a radial acceleration of the medium and is, therefore, a cosmic-gravity effect. This is simply the outwardly-directed effect generically called the Lambda force or effect (comparable to the DeSitter effect). (6) Now, combine the normal contractile-gravity (described by (1), (2) & (3)) with the cosmic-gravity (described by (4) & (5)) and remarkably the DSSU theory of gravity becomes a unified theory of gravity. 

Gravity: the effect that causes the acceleration of all entities towards the center of mass, and is proportional to 1/r2 (i.e., the inverse square of the distance to the mass center).
    (1)  In general relativity it is the effect of the curvature distortion of spacetime.
    (2)  In DSSU cosmology it is the effect of the dynamics of the space medium —specifically the accelerated flow, or inhomogeneous inflow, of aether towards, and into, matter. In the context of processes, gravity is the side effect of, primarily, the mass-manifesting process.

  H

Higgs Boson, Higgs Field:   in conventional physics, a hypothetical subatomic force-particle is believed to bestow the property of mass to other particles; in aggregate, these ‘particles’ constitute a related force field. The Higgs boson (and Higgs field) does not exist in the real world.

Homogeneity:  components of the universe are evenly distributed within the universe on the large scale.

Hubble constant:  (1) In expanding-universe cosmology it is symbolized by Ho and represents the rate at which the recession velocity of galaxies increases with distance. The present value is roughly 22 km/s per million lightyears of distance; but since the expansion rate varies with the age of the BB universe the Hubble expression is often written as ‘H’ and is then called the Hubble parameter.
   (2) In the DSSU, H is the parameter that measures the rate of space expansion (i.e., aether expansion) and is expressed as the speed with which two comoving points, 1 million lightyears apart, are being separated by the manifestation of new space (aether). The value is about 10 km/s per MLY, but varies with the location within the cellular structure of the universe.

Hubble's law (only in BB cosmology):  (recession velocity) = (Hubble constant) x distance.
   By this law, widely separated galaxies are said to be moving apart from each other at an average rate of about 22 km/s per million lightyears of distance between them (or 71km/s per megaparsec).


The Hubble length, L: (only for expanding-universe models) is defined as the distance at which the recession velocity equals light speed. The distance has the quantitative expression c/H, in which = 3.00x105 km/s and » 22.0 km/s per MLY, and equals 13,600 million lightyears.
   The new cosmology does not recognize recession velocities and, therefore, does not have a Hubble length, or a Hubble sphere. Implicitly and explicitly nothing whatsoever is receding on the large scale.

The Hubble sphere: in expanding-universe models, an imaginary sphere centered on the observer and having a radius equal to the Hubble length, L.

Hyperbolic space:  is the geometric term (related to the negative curvature of space) used to describe a region of dynamically expanding space.

Hot Big Bang:  a mythical creation model of the universe which begins at ‘infinitely’ high density and temperature, expands explosively, and cools to become like the Universe we observe now. 

  I

Inflationary scenario:  one of the save-the-appearance modifications of the BB model in which a large cosmological constant is said to have existed, temporarily, early in the history of the BB, and caused a rapid accelerating expansion of the universe; the inflation phase was then followed by a gradually decelerating expansion as described by the 'normal' BB model.  In 1998 the inflationary scenario was again invoked in a further ‘modification’ made necessary by the unexpected reappearance of universe-wide acceleration. To minimize the confusion, the patch that was applied following the Crisis of 1998 is called reinflation.

Interface:  the common region between unit-universes (cosmic cells); the region of aether-streaming confluence; the region where comoving material collides.

Inflationary universe model: a modification of the big bang model; postulates that the early universe experienced a brief period of extremely fast (exponential) expansion.

Isotropy:  the property of being the same in all directions. 

  L

Lambda force, +Λ: it is considered in conventional astrophysics as the 5th force of nature. It is often described as being a kind of antigravity, but its cause is unknown. This 5th force is the property of the vacuum or ether which, in an amazing coincidence, the Greek philosopher Aristotle called the 5th element.
   In the new cosmology:
   
(1) it is the force/effect that appears in the cosmic voids; and is caused (in part) by the fact that the space-medium across each unit-universe is under tension. The positive Λ force is responsible for all large scale motion and subsequent angular momentum.
    (2) it is the negative pressure present in the interior of each unit-universe. Note carefully that the positive Lambda force/effect and negative pressure and tension are all equivalent.

Lightyear:  a measure of astronomical distance.   1 lightyear = 9.46x1012 km.

Linear galaxy cluster: is the filamentous aggregation of galaxies that exists at any triple boundary region where three unit-universes meet each other. Along the ‘meeting line’ galaxy structures, from three neighboring cells, aggregate to form a concentration that extends from one node to another. Most often a linear cluster is observed as a branching arm of a nodal galaxy cluster.

Luminosity: the intrinsic brightness of a star. 

  M

Mach’s Principle: states that inertial mass and all inertial forces are due to the existence and distribution of all the matter in the universe. However, cosmic gravitation cells, because they limit the range of gravitation, make this an obsolete concept.

Magnitude: a scale used by astronomers to measure flux; the apparent brightness of a celestial body, expressed on a scale in which lower numbers mean greater brightness.

Materialism: belief that material objects and their interactions constitute the complete reality of all phenomena. Materialism does not permit a First-Cause process which, of necessity, cannot itself be material; therefore, materialism cannot serve as the foundation of a theory of the Universe.

Matter extinction law: When matter (mass and energy) is subjected to aether deprivation it ceases to exist.

Milky Way accretion disk: in the new cosmology the Milky Way can be referred to as the greater accretion disk formed by the millions of superneutron stars which, in aggregation, constitute the rotating galactic core.

Milky Way density: average density is one hydrogen atom per cubic cm. The Milky Way’s total mass is 1012¤ (i.e., 1012 times the mass of our Sun) according to most textbooks.

MLY:  Mega lightyears or million lightyears; a measure of cosmic distance. 

  N

NGP: North Galactic Pole.  The Milky Way’s North Galactic Polar axis points toward the Coma nodal galaxy cluster.

Nodal galaxy cluster: the multi-branched galaxy aggregation that occurs at each vertex of the rhombic or trapezoidal dodecahedron unit-universe. The dense central region of a cosmic gravitation cell.

Nodal structure: the immense matter concentrations at the unit-universe vertices. There are basically two types: the tripodal and the quadrapodal structures. There are also hypothetical supernode structures. The types are characterized by the number of ‘arms’ (linear clusters) that meet at a vertex.

Normal gravity: in the context of DSSU cosmology, normal gravity is the acceleration of aether flow towards mass bodies (where local space-flow converges). On the larger scale, normal gravity acts in that portion of each cosmic-scale gravitation cell where comoving trajectories (of objects) are converging. It is the normal gravity of our everyday experience. See also cosmic gravity, and unified gravitational cell. 

  P

Parsec:   astronomical unit of distance, corresponding to a parallax of one arc-second, equal to 3.26 lightyears or 3.085678x1013 kilometers.

Perfect Cosmological Principle:  states that the universe, on the large scale, is uniform both in time and in space; an extension of the cosmological principle. The DSSU conforms to the perfect cosmological principle.

Photon: The photon is a wavelike particle of radiation energy; it is the carrier of the electromagnetic force. (It is an energy particle that may be thought of as a laterally oscillating excitation of the aether while traveling in the longitudinal direction.)
Photon conduction process: is a wavelike conduction-disturbance of aether. This "conduction" is unlike any other. The photon is conducted by aether in a manner that is destructive of aether.

Platonic Solids: the five regular polyhedra —the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron —esteemed by Plato and the Pythagoreans as embodying aesthetic and rational ideals.

Primary gravitation: is associated with the process —conduction by aether-absorption— that sustains mass particles and radiation particles and EM-fields.

Proper motion: motion of a body through the space medium and referenced as such; same as intrinsic motion

  Q

Quantum space: the quantization of the space medium. In the DSSU, aether-space consists of discrete fundamental fluctuators of the essence medium. (In conventional physics the term is often used to describe the ‘vacuum’ with its potential to produce real particles.)

  R

Redshift (z): is defined as the displacement towards the longer wavelengths of all the spectral lines in light coming from the stars of distant galaxies; expressed as a fraction of the original wavelength itself. The ratio Dlù(lsource), where l is the wavelength.
   The redshift is used as a prized measure for determining cosmic distance. In BB cosmology (unlike DSSU cosmology), the redshift is interpreted as the evidence of actual receding velocity and even as evidence of the expansion of the whole universe. The cause of the cosmic redshift, in expanding-universe models, is primarily the expansion of space (or space medium). But in the DSSU, the cause is primarily the influence of gravitation —the consequence of transit through cosmic gravitation cells.

Redshift-distance relation: the correlation between redshift in the spectra of galaxies and their distances. The equation used depends on the particular cosmological model. The BB model and the DSSU use distinctly different formulae.

Relativity, general theory of: Einstein’s mathematical theory, incorporating the gravitational effect, in which space and time are geometrized.

Relativity, special theory of: Einstein’s theory of the electrodynamics of moving frames of reference.

Rhombus: a parallelogram with all sides of equal length.

Right Ascension (R. A.):  the astronomer’s equivalent of longitude —longitudinal position lines projected onto the celestial sphere— which divides the celestial sphere in 24 slices, each 15 degrees wide. 

  S

Schwarzschild radius: (1) In conventional cosmology: it is that theoretical distance from the center of a nonrotating mass object for which the escape speed (with respect to the surface) equals the speed of light. It can be calculated for any amount of mass, without reference to relativity, using the expression RS=2GM/c2. The Schwarzschild radius depends only on the quantity of mass (assuming no rotation). If different bodies could be compressed to within their Schwarzschild radius they would not necessarily have the same density.
Schwarzschild radius: (2) is a flawed theoretically predicted dimension for the event horizon of a mass body. When applied to a pre-collapsed mass/body, it fails as a prediction of the actual radius of the event horizon; it fails because it neglects to factor in relativistic length contraction and mass loss via aether deprivation.

Singularity: a concept in standard cosmology used to describe a point region of infinite density —a point-region where standard theories break down. Singularities do not exist in the real world.

SNS: acronym for superneutron star. See superneutron star.

Space:  a general term for the vacuum; also for the background medium of the universe.

Space (3-dimensional): According to DSSU theory, 3-dimensional space (in the sense of an empty container) is a nothingness volume permeated by (filled with) a space medium —a ubiquitous, non-mass, non-energy, discretized aether.

Space contraction postulate:  All matter contracts the space medium, (1) directly through a process of assimilation or direct absorption and, (2) indirectly through a process of self-dissipation within what is called a space contraction ‘field’ that surrounds each and every object or ‘particle’.

Space dynamics:  This term refers to the expansion and contraction aspects of the aether space-medium, as well as its flow. These aspects constitute a complete conceptual description of what sustains the cellular structure of the infinite Universe.

Space expansion parameter:  an empirically derived value, symbolized by H, which measures the rate of space (i.e., aether) expansion within the cosmic voids. (In BB cosmology, it is called the Hubble constant). The research into the DSSU has used a value of 18.6 km/sec per million lightyears of distance. (But the most recent research suggests a value of 10.1 km/sec per million lightyears.)

Special relativity (Einstein): (1) Principle of relativity: the impossibility of detecting uniform (inertial) motion by laboratory experiments. No preferred frame-of-reference. (2) Constancy of the speed of light: light is always propagated in empty space with a velocity independent of the motion of the source.

Special relativity (DSSU): (1) Aether-space serves as the preferred frame-of-reference. It is possible to measure motion relative to absolute space. (2) Constancy of the speed of light: the speed of light is constant and absolute with respect to aether. However, with respect to the observer (any inertial observer), the speed of light is constant only as an illusion facilitated by physical length contraction of the measuring device.

Special relativity speed rule: the rule that nothing can travel faster than 300,000 km/s through space, or through aether.

Spectrometer: spreads starlight, or any other light source, into its different wavelengths.

Speed of Light:  c ≈ 3.00 x 108 meters/second through aether-space.

Spherical Space:  a geometric term associated, in the mathematical world, with the positive curvature of space; and associated, in the real world, with the contraction of the space medium by a mass body.

Star clusters: gravitationally bound aggregation of stars, smaller and less massive than galaxies. The largest star clusters are known as ‘globular’ clusters and harbour hundreds of thousands to millions of stars; while the smaller ones are called ‘open’ clusters.

Static surface: the static surface of infinite redshift (for a distant observer) is a boundary, surrounding a spinning SNS (black hole), where space flow actually reaches the speed of light. It is like a larger second ‘surface’ enclosing a rotating SNS and should not be confused with a true event horizon nor a quasi event-horizon.

Steady State Expanding Universe: a model of the expanding universe with constant density and physical properties. Matter must be continually created to maintain the constant density.

Steady State Non-Expanding Universe: an infinite universe with constant density on the largest scale and constant physical processes and properties. Matter is continually being formed and annihilated. The space medium itself is continually being formed and annihilated.

String Theory: holds that subatomic particles, instead of being mere points, actually have extension along one axis, and that their properties are determined by the arrangement and vibration of so called strings.

Strong nuclear force: one of the conventional four forces of nature. The strong nuclear force holds the particles in the nucleus of atoms together.

Supermassive black hole: A structure delineated by an event horizon that surrounds an interior region of noncontiguous mass. In DSSU theory, a supermassive black hole always contains at least two event horizons (one nested within the other).

Superneutron star: A superneutron star may be thought of as a natural-type black hole; it has an event horizon but no empty region within. “Superneutron” refers to the density of the star’s matter, which is greater than neutron/nuclear density because of length contraction of the constituent particles. The orientation of the length contraction coincides with the radial direction from the star’s center.

Superneutron star (in active state): This is a superneutron star in which an insufficient quantity of aether reaches the core —making it an active aether deprivation core. Essentially, the SnS is absorbing more matter than it can sustain with a strictly-limited supply of aether inflow. With an insufficient quantity of aether reaching the core, the matter within is subjected to a terminal process of matter annihilation.

Suppression-annihilation process (aka Aether-deprivation annihilation): a process that takes place deep inside extreme mass concentrations (matter concentrations that are large or dense or both). It occurs when mass aggregation approaches a state at which an insufficient quantity of aether reaches the core; and since matter cannot exist in the absence of aether, the aether deficiency results in the suppression-annihilation of the affected matter.

Supernova Type 1A: is the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary system. Accretion from a companion raises the mass above the maximum mass permissible for gravitationally stable white dwarfs. The quantity of matter reaches the Chandrasekhar limit and the white dwarf starts to collapse. However, the ensuing compression ignites explosive carbon-burning leading to a total disruption of the star. The light output comes primarily from the energy produced by the decay of radioactive nickel and cobalt produced in the explosion. The peak luminosity is correlated with the rate of decay in the measured light-curve: less luminous supernovae decay more quickly than do more luminous supernovae. When the necessary correction is applied, the relative luminosity of a Type 1A SN can be determined to within 20% accuracy. [Wright, Edward The ABC’s of Distance www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/distance.htm] Type 1A supernovae are bright enough to be seen to such great distances that they can be, and are, used to calibrate the cosmic redshift-distance law. 

  T

Terminal-state star: is a superneutron star actively absorbing/consuming additional matter. Terminal-state stars are the matter disposers of the universe —the ultimate mass-and-energy destroyers.

Theory: a rational self-consistent account of a wider range of phenomena than is ordinarily accounted for by a hypothesis.

Trapezoid: a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides. 

  U

Unified gravitation region (unified gravitation cell):  a typical cosmic region having a nodal galaxy cluster as its central mass, surrounded by normal gravity (a sub-region of contractile space-medium), which is in turn surrounded by cosmic gravity (sub-regions of expansionary space-medium). It is called ‘unified’ because each cell consists of both normal gravity with its inward converging trajectories, as well as cosmic gravity with its inward diverging trajectories. As dictated by the unit-universe geometry, the unified cells are bounded and exist in mainly two shapes: tetrahedral and octahedral.

Unified theory: in general, a theory that gathers a wide range of fundamentally different phenomena under a single precept. The DSSU fundamental process of energy is such a theory.

Unit dodecahedral universe:  one of the names given to the largest structure of the dynamic steady state universe (DSSU). Also known as unit-universe, bubble universe, and cosmic cell.

Universality:  the property that the same physical laws apply throughout the infinite universe.
 

  V

Vacuum energy density:  Quantum theory requires empty space to be filled with particles and antiparticles being continually created and annihilated. This leads to a net mass density, hence energy density, of the ‘vacuum’ and behaves like a cosmological constant. As attractive as this concept sounds, it does not seem to be necessary for the DSSU. In the DSSU framework, the vacuum (i.e., the aether medium) when subjected to negative pressure —as happens in the void regions of the cosmic cells— tends to expand resulting in the formation of new aether. This negative pressure, in the act of expanding space, behaves like a positive cosmological constant.

Velocity, intrinsic: In DSSU cosmology the intrinsic velocity of a galaxy or object is the velocity relative to the local space medium.

Virtual quantum foam:  (also virtual foam) a sub-microscopic description of space, consisting of virtual-real quantum particles and energy oscillators. An ambiguous term; depends on one's theory of the vacuum or space.

  W

Weak nuclear force: one of the conventional four forces of nature. The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay as well as the fusion reactions in the Sun that provide heat and light for the Earth.

Weight: is the measurable force (mass x acceleration) that manifests when matter is prevented from accelerating with the aether medium.

2013-4 rev2016-5


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