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NEW ITEMS:

Latest research Paper: The Dynamic Steady State Universe. This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer

Also ... a revolutionary paper on gravity has been reviewed and published:
The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan, Journal of Modern Physics and Applications, Vol.2014:3 (2014)


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews) … This article is the first of a series specifically devoted to revealing the secrets of the Universe. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
Part 1 now published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
Part 2 now published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"


Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the ‘particle’ that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.


Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law, Without c Without H —removing the speed-of-light and the Hubble constant from the RS-distance equation.  Published in Galilean Electrodynamics Journal Vol.25, No.3 (May/June 2014).

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May Issue).

Local copy: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy—distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)


Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf):  Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

 

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology

Cosmology Crisis of 1998

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes.

The Universe is Infinite (Part 1) —an explanation of why it must be spatially infinite.

The Universe is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of why it must be time-wise infinite.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —a Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (htm) with EXTRAS.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (pdf) —C. Ranzan —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.” (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol 22, No 4, P564 (2009). ABSTRACT

Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

Amazing video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are truly stunning.
 

DSSU Theory:

Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent re-discovery, in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery, which in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic quantum foam —the Essence of the Universe. (rev2012-3)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity —The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

The Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  (Chapter 1 of original DSSU Manuscript) —The postulates and implications of regional space expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GRAVITY:

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan, Journal of Modern Physics and Applications, Vol.2014:3 (2014)

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

First journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda —How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery —Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT

The Story of Gravity and Lambda —How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery —Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity —Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. Link added Oct 2013. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept)  —Abstract & linksInitial Reviews 

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity —Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity --The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a Reviewer Critical of DSSU Absolute-Space Relativity

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —how to convert ABSTRACT-SPACE equations into ABSOLUTE-SPACE equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass. (Posted 2012 Mar)
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org
or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those now facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research. Persecution continues (2014).

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described on www.infowars.com as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.

The persecution of Marc Lemire, for merely expressing his reasoned opinion, continues. On October 2, 2012, (Canadian) Federal Court Judge Mosley upheld the constitutionality of the repressive Sec.13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act. This "Section 13" specifically hands over control of the Internet to the HRC thought police. “Marc Lemire Appeals outrageous ruling by the Federal Court on Section 13 censorship”
A year later, November 2013, the case is still unresolved!

The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada has lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.

Devastating blow to freedom of speech in Canada! Massive penalties imposed on Connie & Mark Fournier.
 


... about the author ...



© Copyright 2005-2014 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
13th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2014 July 6

Visits since 2010 July: Hit Counter

2014-7-6

 

The Cellular Universe website:

---presenting articles and research papers relating to all aspects of what is known as DSSU Theory* for the professional and amateur explorers of our Universe (and for the just plain curious-of-mind).

---presenting the continuing research resulting from the discovery (in August 2001) of the four fundamental processes that constitute the Universe and manifest all that is observable.

---presenting the on-going exploration into a new realm of cosmology, astrophysics, and fundamental physics.

The extensive research into Dynamic-Steady-State-Universe Theory is presented as
The New Cosmology

* The Dynamic Steady State Universe theory ---the definitive model of our Universe based on the premise that all things are processes.

A Cellular Universe Simulation:
A remarkable video of a simulated cellular universe: The Millennium Simulation 

NOTE: In the video, the Z-index (a redshift number) is being interpreted as a “time” parameter of an evolving universe in conformity with the big-bang expanding-universe paradigm. However, in reality (the DSSU cellular-universe reality), the Z-index is essentially a cosmic-distance parameter. The objective reality is that the Universe does NOT expand (only regional space expands). The Universe does NOT evolve (only subsystems evolve). The Universe simply IS. As Heraclitus, some 2500 years ago, wisely taught,  This Universe always has been, is now, and always will be (Fragment #29)

As for the cell structure that manifests as The Cosmic Web: In the DSSU, the cosmic cell structure is NOT phenomenological. It is NOT a phenomenon of the evolution of the universe; rather, the cell structure is fundamental and intrinsic.
 

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology

Conrad Ranzan   (2008)
 

“We have to return to this foundation and start over again asking ancient but fundamental questions
 hoping that today we are in a better position to answer them.”
-- Dr. Johan Masreliez
[1]

 “Beneath the apparently haphazard motions ... may lie a formative tendency
 toward simplicity of form, order and regularity.”
--Lancelot Law Whyte
[2]

 
 


Our opening premise: The Universe, of which we are a part, exists. The Universe exists. As rational beings, we all agree that it does. This is as self-evident as it could possibly be. (Notice that the word ‘Universe’ is capitalized to make it clear that we are referring to the one real Universe that actually exists.)
 

1   Is the Universe Finite or Infinite?

   In the quest for a problem-free cosmology, the first task should involve deciding whether the Universe exists as a finite or an infinite cosmos. Is the Universe spatially endless or not? Is the Universe timeless or not?

   If we unwisely choose to place limits on the Universe ---as most cosmologies throughout history have--- we run into several major problems. The most obvious one is called the boundary problem.

The Boundary Problem

   The boundary problem involves hypothesizing some sort of “cosmic edge” that bounds and limits the universe. (When uncapitalized, the word ‘universe’ refers to the model of our Universe or some hypothetical universe.) The nature of the outer boundary of the universe has puzzled many of the ablest minds in the history of cosmology. Over the centuries, a variety of cosmic-edge boundaries have been proposed; none makes a compelling connection with reality; all represent attempts to tame the limitless.

   One of the earliest attempts at a cosmic edge involved an enveloping boundary of nothingness. A first century B.C. school of Roman philosophers, known as the Stoics, taught that the finite cosmos was surrounded by a void region that stretched to infinity.[3] The Stoics sought to restrict the size of their finite universe by surrounding it with an infinite universe! To the Ancients, the void represented absolute nothingness, and so it seemed reasonable to invoke the void as a cosmic barrier. Modern astrophysicists, however, recognized that the void, or the vacuum, represents physical dynamical space. And, of course, everything that is physical belongs to and is contained within the Universe. As a strategy for a finite universe the barrier of endless nothingness was a failure.

   A common conception was the belief in a wall-like cosmic edge ---think of a cosmic egg shell. Johannes Kepler may be cited as a believer in a finite universe that was enclosed in a dark cosmic wall of unspecified nature.[4]

   During the middle ages a spiritual boundary was adopted (and acceptance of it was strictly enforced). A spiritual cosmic shell, called the Realm of Heaven, was the outermost region enclosing a number of lower ranking concentric shells of the less pure and material universe. As one moved outward away from Earth the physical realm was progressively transformed into an aetheric or spiritual realm.[5] The spiritual cosmic-edge itself ---the extreme limit of the medieval universe--- consisted of the convex outer limits of the sphere of this Christian Heaven.

   Giordano Bruno boldly challenged the effectiveness of the barrier. He ‘explored’ the forbidden territory beyond the edge and found ---to the horror of the Guardians of the Holy Truth--- infinity. And as with most official doctrines, the more untenable the underlying idea the more ruthlessly it is enforced. Philosopher Bruno exposed the futility of a cosmic-edge idea when he advanced the argument, “... let the surface be what it will, I must always put the question: what is beyond?”[6] and paid the ultimate price. The terminal tax of heresy.

   As if on some mission of vengeance Bruno’s question lives on ---haunting all who fear the unholy truth of infinity.


   Before considering the modern cosmic boundaries we need to understand the relationship between space-and-time and the universe. Evidently the ancient view was that space and time contained the universe. The universe was pictured as an island surrounded by the void (space) and existing in independent time. The modern view is the converse: the universe contains space and time. [7] The old simplistic barriers have long been discarded; the new complex barriers of the mathematical genus were now embraced.

   The first attempt at a mathematical boundary was made by the German astronomer Johann Zöllner, who was not so much motivated by a desire to confine the universe as by the intellectual demand to resolve the infamous gravity paradox.

“In 1887 ... Zöllner proposed a resolution of the gravity paradox that was a landmark in the history of cosmology. Inspired by [Georg Bernhard] Riemann’s work on curved space, he suggested that space was curved and finite, so that the total amount of matter in the universe was finite. ... This was a remarkable anticipation of the Einstein universe of 1917.” [8]

  And as it happened, Einstein constructed the modern cosmic boundary. Einstein formulated (in his 1917 theory of the universe) the new boundary as the limits of a mathematical hypersphere of geometrized space.

   The mathematical magic behind this geometric barrier may be described something like this: If the universe of spherical space were static, then as you approach the cosmic ‘edge’ you are bounced back towards the center of the universe but from the opposite end of the universe! You will have circumnavigated the finite universe of curved space! Science writer Timothy Ferris, in his book The Whole Shebang, gives a similar description of this bizarre effect using a light beam traveling towards the edge.[9]

   The universes based on Einstein’s general relativity are abstract universes, not to be confused with the real Universe.

   It should also be mentioned that a cosmic edge implies a cosmic center. The presence of a cosmic center leads to a violation of the cosmological principle which states that the universe is uniform, on the large scale, in all places (spatial homogeneity) and in all directions (isotropic), and has no preferred location. And so in this sense, the presence of a boundary is an affront to the cosmological principle. You never, ever, want to violate this principle!
 

Philosophical Problems

   Now consider the problems associated with temporal restrictions. Although a universe that is finite in time does not necessarily imply an end-of-time it most definitely demands a beginning. Also, any universe that is both finite and evolving has, by implication, a beginning. The very notion that a universe evolves implies a ‘beginning’ moment (and state) from which it evolved. Georges Lemaître understood this when he fashioned the original version of the Big Bang by explicitly demanding one. However, Sir Arthur Eddington suggested a deeper understanding when he wrote in the journal Nature: “Philosophically the notion of a beginning to the present order of nature is repugnant to me.”[10] The philosopher Constantin Antonopoulos, critical of the beginning-of-time aspect of the expanding universe model, argues convincingly that the “idea of a first moment of Time is a self-contradictory one.”[11]

   Trying to explain “a beginning” adds a vast new layer of complexity to any meaningful understanding of the Cosmos. A philosophical branch of cosmology called cosmogenesis deals with this complexity. It involves the search for the origin of the universe. But since genesis involves an unsound and unnecessary assumption ---a creation event--- it is not good science. Postulating and explaining the creation of the universe is more a matter of faith than logic. Noble Laureate Hannes Alfvén sums up the point:

“There is no rational reason to doubt that the universe has existed indefinitely, for an infinite time. It is only myth that attempts to say how the universe came into being either four thousand years ago or twenty billion years ago.” [12]

   And of course anyone who has done any thinking at all will have, at one time or another, asked, “What came before the big creation event?” Physicists recognize this for what it is ---an invalid question since there was no ‘before’ time. However, the related question has them scratching their heads.

   “What caused the creation event?” Indeed, what did trigger the beginning?

   The popular approach to resolve the beginning-paradox is to invoke repeating cycles of creation followed by annihilation. The irony is that the resolution lays in transforming (by multiplication) finite time into infinite time. The ‘beginning’ (of course) vanishes, demonstrating once more that for an infinite universe there is no paradox and that our ‘infinite’ choice in Flowchart 1 is a wise one.

   A universe that is finite in time has always been philosophically objectionable.
 

Initial Conditions Problem

   A true infinite universe is clearly a non-created universe. It did NOT start-out in some compact form and then transition to the infinite state. It is because it always was.

   In contrast, a true finite universe is a created universe. The problem with a created universe, aside from the serious philosophical problems mentioned, is the determination of the physical laws of nature and the magnitude of the fundamental constants. How and why did Nature choose the laws and the constants? This is known as the initial conditions problem. How did the created universe end-up with its three or four fundamental forces when there could have been any number whatsoever?! Same goes for the various constants of nature and the collection of unique subatomic particles.  How were the menu items of universal rules and building components selected before there was a menu?

   In big bang cosmology the initial conditions problem leads to the mystery of the primordial atom: The metaphysical assumption that the universe originated as an infinitely small primordial atom of infinite matter density is countered by the probability that for physical reasons a singular state of this nature is unattainable.[13] Nevertheless, this is what some versions of the big bang propose. Now think about this for a moment. A universe starts out as a singularity ---an infinitely small speck of a point. Then this singularity grows to become a universe. Is there anyone who would deny that a speck of almost nothing that contains almost everything is a paradox?

   A paradox, of course, is the worst kind of problem. It is the most effective way of destroying any hypothesis (and any theory).

   Academic cosmologists tell us that “A universe that evolves from initial conditions, that has all its complexity implicit in a simple initial state, is a preferred universe.”[14] But wait a moment. Aren’t the experts overlooking the fact that a universe that simply has NO initial conditions is actually the most preferred universe? ... They should be reminded that only an infinite universe presents such a situation; it has no initial conditions (simply because it was never in an infant state). Consequently, it has no genesis paradox and no singularity paradox.

   Needless to say, regardless of the finite-infinite selection we are undertaking, the fundamental laws still need to be explained (why they are what they are) but this is not the purpose of the present article.

   For most finite universes there is also the related problem of end-state conditions. It’s described as the mystery of the fate of the Cosmos. For example, will the big bang universe continue expanding forever or will it collapse back into that impossible singularity?
 

Existence Cannot be Quantified

   The Universe is the exclusive manifestation of existence. To limit the Universe in any way with respect to its spatial extent or its temporal duration is to place a limit upon existence itself. Existence cannot be quantified. You either have it or you don’t. Axiomatically, it’s all or nothing. Since we agreed in the opening discussion that, indeed, we and the rest of the Universe do have existence, then we must recognize its full infiniteness. Nothing less than an infinite universe is acceptable.

   Although the argument in favor of an infinite universe is compelling, it does not diminish the extraordinary difficulty of grasping the conclusion’s totally uncompromising meaning and its power to out-scale anything imaginable into unimaginable insignificance. It is as though that which has no limiting barrier becomes itself a conceptual barrier of sorts. Ironic indeed. Infinitude becomes a barrier of the mind. ... We each deal with that issue as best we can.

   The Universe is timeless and spatially endless because it has always been timeless and endless. It exists perpetually.

“Things are as they are because they were as they were.” —American physicist Thomas Gold[15]

   And in its perpetual existence, it exemplifies the dictum called the perfect cosmological principle.[16]



Flowchart 1.
   Choosing between the finite class of universe and the infinite class of universe.

 

We go with “the Infinite”

   Based on the above discussion, the winning choice is clearly the infinite universe. The Objective-reality view holds that the Universe is infinite.

   Care to guess the Official Science view?

   The Official View is succinctly expressed by Roger Penrose a leading expert on the Universe and “one of the world’s most knowledgeable and creative mathematical physicists,”[17]

“We do not know whether the universe as a whole is finite or infinite in extent —either in space or in time ...”  — R. Penrose [18]

   It may surprise you that Academic Science does not commit itself. Understand that Academia would like to embrace the finite concept but the accompanying problems are too blatant, too irresolvable. On the other hand, no matter how compelling the ‘infinity’ choice may be, Academia cannot accept it! I repeat, the infinite universe cannot be accepted into the Official View.  In the next section we make a simple choice for the space-medium of our universe and in the selection process explain why Academia must preclude the limitless universe.
 

2   The Space-Medium of the Universe is Dynamic

   Early in the 20th century the theories and investigations of Einstein, Willem de Sitter, and Alexander Friedmann made it imperative that, whatever space is, it must posses a dynamic quality. Space could not be static; space had to be an active player in the universe. In other words, the nature of space was such that it had to expand or contract. In fact, DeSitter found that space was dynamic (specifically expansionary) even when space was completely empty, that is, when there was no mass present! With or without mass, “... in the general relativity picture the universe consists of expanding space.”[19]

   Then came the hard evidence. Astronomers, most notably Vesto Slipher, followed in the 1920s by Carl Wirtz, Howard Robertson and Edwin Hubble, found that all but the nearest galaxies appeared to be receding from our solar system and our Milky Way galaxy. Evidently the cosmic space between galaxies was expanding. It was the light from those galaxies that held the key. As the light from far-off galaxies radiates through expanding space the light waves are stretched —slowly, relentlessly, cumulatively. The resulting elongated light-waves carry the measurable imprint of space expansion. The measurable imprint is called the redshift --- the hard evidence.

   The large scale expansion of space is commonly called the Hubble expansion in honor of Edwin Hubble.

   Space expansion is also observable as the phenomenon called the Lambda effect (and means exactly the same thing). In fact, astrophysicists have for many years referred to space expansion as the Lambda effect, as well as the DeSitter effect. Then in the 1980s another kind of space expansion, called inflation, was introduced and became popular.

   The evidence that space actually expands was so overwhelmingly convincing that this dynamic process has been adopted as the main pillar of modern cosmology. You will find this process underpinning practically all the models of the last 100 years or so. The Einstein-DeSitter model ---the basic textbook model--- depends on space expansion. All the Big Bang models depend on space expansion. The various Inflation models depend on space expansion. Even the historic Steady State models required space expansion. (A rare exception is the Milne model of kinematic relativity.) Cyclical and Oscillating universes use space expansion for their current cycle.

   But space expansion is only part of the dynamic story. Dynamic space also partakes in a process of contraction. The universe’s space medium has a contraction mode.

“Einstein’s theory ... predicts that a uniform, unbounded medium can’t be static; it must either expand or contract.” [20]

   Einstein’s theory of gravity (general relativity theory) is a mathematical description of the contractile nature of space. According to his theory, space undergoes a contraction (relativists prefer the geometric phrasing and say that space curves positively) in the vicinity of mass and energy. As a simplified illustration, the Sun, is contracting the space of the solar system, but since the Earth is (and the other orbiting bodies are) ‘falling’ tangentially away from the Sun we do not notice the shrinkage. The Earth’s outward motion is balanced by the inward motion of space and our distance from the Sun remains more or less constant.

   Space contraction is an observable phenomenon that is essential in the manifestation of the gravitational effect. In the field of Process Physics, researchers refer to the contraction process as the ‘self-dissipation of space’. It means the same thing —space shrinks, space disappears.


   So here’s what we have. Theory says space must contract or expand; observational evidence shows that space does both. The choice for our space-medium is obvious. We vote with the Official View, as shown in Flowchart 2.


 
Flowchart 2.
   It is a well established fact that space is dynamic. There are two basic modes whereby space reveals its dynamic nature ---space may expand, space may contract. Which then means there are three ways to incorporate dynamic space into a model of the universe: (1) Space in the universe expands; (2) space in the universe contracts; (3) the universe contains both expansion and contraction.


   Before moving on to the final and most interesting selection-round allow me to explain the expanding-space trap in which Contemporary Cosmology has entangled itself. Rightfully convinced of the reality of space expansion, the overzealous participants then extrapolated the fact of the expansion of cosmic regional-space into the highly speculative notion of the expansion of the entire universe!! Calling the extrapolation the Big Bang universe leaves no doubt about what they think is expanding.

   But now observe: Only a finite universe can, theoretically, expand. An infinite universe cannot. It would be utterly foolish and completely pointless to propose an infinite universe that could or would expand and become measurably bigger! If the concept of infinity means anything, it certainly means “already fully expanded” and the infinite radius (or diameter) cannot become more infinite!

   And so, Official Cosmology must turn its back on the infinite universe concept, for it has committed itself a priori to the expansion paradigm. History tells us, the medievalists had solemnly pronounced that the perfection of the universe was revealed in the perfect circular motions of the Heavenly bodies. Their modern counterparts now ordain that the perfection of the universe is patent in the universal Hubble expansion.

   Having elevated the Hubble expansion as the defining feature of the universe (rather than restricting the defining feature to a property of space itself) Official Cosmology must equivocate on the issue of finite versus infinite. Otherwise, if it does the honest thing and declares the universe to be finite it will look foolish because of its inability to resolve the serious problems (associated with the finite universe) discussed in section one. If it submits to reality and declares the universe to be infinite it will look foolish because it’s sacred Hubble expansion will become impotent. There appears to be no way out.

   Let me make this absolutely clear, the expanding universe paradigm (and I must emphasis here, expanding space and expanding universe are two totally different things), the very heart of the Official Cosmology, is scientifically untenable. The paradigm of universe-wide expansion has led Official Cosmology into a trap. It is trapped between the jaws of finitude and infinitude. The simple choice presented in Flowchart 1 is forbidden.

   Understand the nature of the trap and you understand the forces resisting meaningful change. It seems that when Academic cosmologists discuss the problem of finite-versus-infinite the main purpose is not to nail down a resolution in the interest of science, but rather to maintain a perpetual balance of views as if in the interest of fairness. If this is the game plan then it works wonderfully ---Academia cleverly avoids making that fateful commitment. The Ptolemaic ‘saving the appearances’ trumps the search for truth.
 

3   The Five Combinations of Space-Expansion and Space-Contraction

   The chosen criterion is a universe with two opposing space dynamics. We may quickly conclude that there are only five possible ways to combine expansion and contraction. They represent five classes of universes; each class with generally defined combinations of space dynamics.

   The Chaotic universe has no discernable order. Randomness reigns. There is a chaotic expansion and contraction of space; and the scale of this activity may depend on some unrestrained (similarly chaotic) variable. Theorists, like the Russian cosmologist Andrei Linde, have a field day throwing together a seemingly endless variety of speculative models. Nature, however, reveals far too much order for this category to represent reality.

   When the two processes occur simultaneously nothing of consequence happens (at least initially). Think of it as a leaky balloon universe. As you ‘expand’ or ‘inflate’ the quantity of air by pumping air into the balloon there is a compensating ‘dissipation’ of air via the pinhole leaks. With luck, a temporary equilibrium may be achieved. Anyway, metaphor aside, you end up with a nominally static universe ---a universe balanced between runaway expansion and runaway contraction.

   In 1917 Einstein constructed a mathematical version of the static universe. Not surprisingly, its state, and fate, was precariously balanced. The slightest disturbance between cosmological ‘inflation’ and ‘dissipation’ resulted in the unmistakable instability of feedback amplification. In other words Einstein’s model wouldn’t work. Einstein eventually abandoned it and in 1932 selected the universal expansion class instead. In the context of Flowchart 3, he switched from the 2nd box to the 4th box.

   The Sequential combination (the third block from the left in Flowchart 3) leads directly to the quasi-religionary universe offering repeated creation and annihilation. This group is defined by the sequential and monolithic space-expansion, then space-contraction, then expansion again, and so on. Every reader of popular science will recognize this as a cyclical Big-Bang Big-Crunch universe. Historically, this is known as the Oscillating universe and was the type favored by Alexander Friedmann. Interestingly the oldest documented universe ---the Brahmanda universe of Hinduism--- belongs to this class.

   The problems? The Sequential (or Oscillating) universe, as a more complex version of the Big Bang, has them in abundance.
 



Flowchart 3.
   The five possible combinations of space expansion and space contraction define five universe classes. The Regional class stands out: When, for an infinite universe, space expansion is fundamentally linked to space contraction, then a cosmic cellular structure necessarily manifests. The Regional category leads to the Cellular Universe which has consistently shown to be a problem-free cosmology.


     The fourth combination involves Universal Expansion with Isolated Contraction. This of course is the Official View. Universal space expansion, which the Big Bang ideologists call the Hubble expansion, causes the universe to expand; meanwhile isolated space-contraction tends to concentrate the otherwise randomly distributed galaxies, resulting in the formation of localized galaxy clusters. Unfortunately the model makes wrong predictions. For instance, a slowing-down of the big-bang expansion had been predicted, but in 1998 certain astronomical evidence was interpreted as the unexpected speeding-up of big-bang expansion. So in 1998, the decelerating Big Bang became the Accelerating Big Bang universe.


   With its paradoxes, patches, and phantom components the Official View is a problem plagued cosmology. A leading physicist, Sean M. Carroll, with the California Institute of Technology, makes it devastatingly clear. “...This scenario staggers under the burden of its unnaturalness, ...”[21]

   In fact, and in bold print, he calls it “the preposterous universe.”[22]

   Included in the fourth category is the hierarchical universe (often called the fractal model), a type of universe popular among some physicists. As is usually the case, there are many versions; but since they generally incorporate the characteristic universal expansion with localized contraction, albeit of greater complexity, they are included here.

   The final combination involves the regional expansion of space and a compensating regional contraction. Now, if we apply this combination to the infinite universe (chosen in Flowchart 1) and recognize, as we did earlier, that an infinite universe neither expands nor contracts, then we necessarily end-up with a cellularized universe. Furthermore, if the dual dynamics are in some way fundamentally linked to each other, then a stable equilibrium will exist between the processes of space expansion and space contraction. More to the point, the cosmic cell structure will be more or less regular.

   A perfectly natural picture of the Universe emerges. Naturally ordered regions of space expansion (regions called voids) are separated by enveloping regions of space contraction (regions called galaxy clusters).

   In this balanced struggle between rival dynamics, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus would have recognized his own world view of “opposites in harmony” and everything being in perpetual flux. We recognize it as a problem-free cosmology ---a revolutionary new cosmology.
 

4   Revolutionary Cosmology versus Official Cosmology

   Two aspects of the Cellular Universe need to be explained. First, the adoption of the Cellular Universe model represents a true revolution in Cosmology. Second, it plays a leading role in a strange mystery of omission.

Revolution in Cosmology

   In the chronicles of cosmology great emphasis is placed on the so called Copernican revolution. Yet the Copernican world system was not, by any stretch of the imagination, a revolutionary new theory; it was the rediscovery of the ancient Aristarchos (of Samos) Heliocentric system from almost nineteen centuries earlier. By glorifying a recycled idea as a great revolution I suppose we assuage the Western World’s failure to equal the Ancients in their intellectual prowess and the Western World’s scientific stagnation during the many centuries of relative darkness before the appearance of the light of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.

   The chronicles of cosmology also describe the great 20th century revolution with the development of general relativity theory and the discovery of cosmic redshift, followed subsequently by the enthronement of the exploding-universe paradigm. The central idea had been called, derisively, the Big Bang but by the late 1960s it had become the official model.[23] Yet the model was a consistent failure and made no useful predictions. Truly devastating is that the Official Model cannot account for the large scale structure in the universe ---the deviation from homogeneity of galaxy count distribution.[24] Astronomers observe the grand-scale clumping in the Universe, but Academic theorists have no explanation.[25]  And so the chronicles describe the Official Model’s long and fruitless search for missing dark matter ---crucial for explaining the cohesion of galaxy clusters and networks. And at the same time there is a search for missing dark energy ---crucial for explaining the acceleration of the Hubble expansion, as suggested by the famous supernovae, type 1a, observations.

   The problems and failures of the Official Model are far too numerous to itemize here let alone go into the embarrassing details. Yes, there is a constant struggle to patch-up the model. Researchers typically concentrate on one particular problem at a time and resolution attempts end-up exacerbating some other existing problem, or worse, creating new ones. Meanwhile, there is an audience that is growing impatient. Science writer Roy C. Martin, Jr. has been evaluating the performance, making it quite clear that its time for the curtain to come down. He presents the verdict in his popular book entitled, Astronomy on Trial: A Devastating and Complete Repudiation of the Big Bang Fiasco.[26]

   While the Copernican ‘revolution’, if we can call it that, was successful; the Big Bang ‘revolution’ was a failure.

   Which brings us to the next cosmology revolution.

   Look at the flowcharts again. They include ALL the realistic possibilities. In the first chart only two possibilities exist; in the second chart only three; the last, only five. If I have, by some oversight, omitted any other such possibility I will immediately retract this article and make whatever inclusion is needed. In particular I draw your attention to the third chart which shows all the conceivable realistic ways (I place the emphasis on realistic so as to exclude the countless mathematical ways) that space can expand and contract. We know (we agreed earlier) it does both. I will now explain why the distinct combinations are important.

   Up to this point there has been very little discussion of the relationship between dynamic space and the material stuff in the universe. We now add this material, say in the form of galaxies, to the five model types; and observe. The observations will become the final arbiter of the validity of the model.

   We have five combinations of space; giving rise to characteristic patterns. The pattern of the space dynamics will determine the distribution of the mass. For the chaotic space category, in the absence of more specific details, we would expect a random mass distribution. For the second category in which space simultaneously expands and contracts no noteworthy pattern would be expected. For both the sequential and the universal categories we would quite reasonably expect a high degree of homogeneous distribution of mass, but not an organized pattern. Only the regional class predicts a pattern with an orderly distribution of mass. Mass would concentrate at the interface bordering (and surrounding) the individual cosmic cells with their space expanding interiors. It is this cellular pattern formed by galaxies clustering according to regional space dynamics that solves the homogeneity problem.

   The large departure from homogeneity that astronomers observe in our Universe is such a striking fact, that physicist Hannes Alfvén considered this as the main argument against the Big Bang (which predicts a smooth distribution). To Alfvén, the cellular structure of the Universe was obvious; and the fact that the Official Model could not explain cellular structure, equally obvious.[27]


   At this point, I have to pause and wonder. ... What is preventing my learned colleagues from seeing the glaringly obvious solution?  May I respectfully suggest that the easiest way to explain the observed cell-like structure is to use a cellular model? Not a big-explosion model!

   Strange how a revolution can hinge on something so self evident.

   Continuing ...

   For a new cosmology to be considered revolutionary it must, as a bare minimum, solve the homogeneity riddle and thereby reveal the nature of our Universe’s conformity to the cosmological principle; it must make meaningful predictions that agree with actual observations; and it must share none of the serious problems and fatal flaws highlighted in Flowchart 1. The Cellular Universe model does this and much more. Its ability to resolve numerous other cosmology and astrophysics problems is detailed elsewhere. However, based solely on the three charts, the conclusion is unambiguous: The Universe is non-expanding. The Universe is ordered. The Universe is cellular.

   The cellular model represents a powerful theory with the ability to explain the deviation from simple homogeneity, overcome the initial conditions problem, resolve the genesis paradox, stabilize the universe, and conform to the uncompromising demands of astronomical observations. Remarkably, all is accomplished without any radical departure from standard physics! ... and without introducing any radical mysterious components. This is unprecedented in modern cosmology.


   This is considered Revolutionary Cosmology.
 

The Omission Mystery

   I now come to the most amazing aspect of the quest that led to the cellular universe. If I had not done the related research myself, I would find these statements quite incredible. I still find it hard to believe. According to the chronicles of cosmology all of the models implicit in the third chart have been tested ... except for one. During the years and decades following the key realization that space is dynamic, all possible variations of dynamic modes have been explored ---with one exception.

   The cellular universe model has never been examined; there is nothing to be found in the literature. In fact, prior to 2002 there was no name or term for a universe in which space expands but the universe itself does not.[28] This oversight is arguably the most inexplicable omission confronting cosmology and astrophysics.

   Imagine the challenge of performing research in biology, crystallography, thermodynamics, and a number of other fields without the concept of cells and cell structure! Knowing that the macro-world tends to imitate the micro-world would it not be basic scientific procedure to test this concept on the ultimate macro-world?

   The omission is not only inexplicable, it is inexcusable when you consider that cellular structure is, after all, and regardless of scale, nature’s preferred expression of order.
 

Transformation of Official Cosmology

   One can’t help but ask: What kind of science are researchers practicing in the relevant academic departments? When will the problems and paradoxes be resolved and the “preposterous universe” become less preposterous? Or how about the very simple but still unanswered question, What causes some galaxies to rotate?

   Twentieth century cosmology has blundered badly. The evasion of the finite-infinite question, the error of omission, and the paradoxes mentioned earlier are but a few of the many unresolved problems. The sad truth is that they are irresolvable without destroying much of the superstructure of the Official Model. However, unable or unwilling to address the serious issues, Official Cosmology blunders on. And so, patching the failing pieces of the model has become a never-ending project of ‘saving the appearances.’ Again, sad. Rather than “... return to this foundation and start over again asking ancient but fundamental questions hoping that today we are in a better position to answer them.”[29] as physicist Johan Masreliez advises; rather than submit to the simple logic that cosmic cellular structure is surely best explained by a dynamic cellular model; rather than perform an elementary reality check, as our three charts exemplify and restore basic scientific principles; Academic Cosmology has devolved into a deception.

   The Official Cosmology has experienced so many failures and endured so many attacks that it has evolved an effective defense strategy: It has become ever more esoterical and mathematical in an effort to conceal the blunders. Furthermore, while maintaining the pretense of doing science, Official Cosmology has over the course of many decades transformed itself into Modern Mythology.
 

Objective Cosmology versus Modern Mythology

   The Official Cosmology paints a picture of an evolving universe. But what it evolved from, we are told, is a complete mystery. A universe that evolves from a place or time outside the investigative reach of science is a universe that requires variable laws of nature. If the current laws break down for the very early Big Bang universe then the laws must have been different (or even non-existent). Again, this is what we are told. But a picture of an evolving universe, no matter how refined and detailed, is not a scientific representation.

“The big bang implied that the universe evolved over time, which implied that natural laws might also evolve over time. Such evolution would undermine the repeatability of experiments and so undermine the cornerstone of scientific method[ology].” --Corey Powell [30]

   The Big-Bang universal-expansion view represents a denial of the scientific method.

   If I had to choose a checkmate argument one that leaves no way out, and makes it clear why there is no way out, I would advance the following. The Official model (and all of its variants) uses variable physical laws, therefore it is unscientific. It represents a mythical universe. It cannot claim to represent a real universe.

   That latter claim goes to the Objective Model: the naturally ordered, balanced dynamic-space, and stable, here it comes, as promised, ... Cellular Universe.     

 

 

2008 03              Copyright © 2008 by Conrad Ranzan                E-mail:   Ranzan@CellularUniverse.org    www.CellularUniverse.org

 

Notes and References

[1] Johan Masreliez: www.estfound.org/philosophical.htm

[2] Lancelot Law Whyte, as in The Mystery of Matter. Edited by Louise B. Young. 1965 (Oxford University Press, New York)  P538

[3] Harrison, E. R. 1981. Cosmology, the Science of the Universe (Cambridge University Press) p103

[4] Ibidem, p105

[5] Ibidem, p105-6

[6] Harrison, E. R. 2003. Masks of the Universe, Changing Ideas on the Nature of the Cosmos (2nd ed. Cambridge University Press) p254

[7] Ibidem, p253

[8] Harrison, E. R. 1981. Cosmology, the Science of the Universe, p281

[9] Ferris, T. 1997. The Whole Shebang, A State-of-the-Universe(s) Report (Simon & Schuster, New York) p70 & p320

[10] Sir Arthur Eddington, quoted in Corey S. Powell. 2002. God in the Equation  (The Free Press, New York) p134

[11] Antonopoulos, Constantin. A Bang into Nowhere, Comments on the Universe Expansion Theory (Aperion, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2003) p46

[12] Hannes Alfvén, as in The Big Bang Never Happened, Discover magazine, June 1988

[13] Harrison, E. R. 1981. Cosmology, the Science of the Universe, p229

[14] Ibidem, p111

[15] Thomas Gold, as in: Timothy Ferris. 1988. Coming of Age in the Milky Way (William Morrow and Co., Inc., New York) p338

[16] The Perfect Cosmological Principle states that the universe is uniform both in unlimited time and in unlimited space; an extension of the cosmological principle.

[17] Penrose, Roger. 1990. The Emperor’s New Mind (Oxford University Press, New York) Page v

[18] Ibidem, p4

[19] Harrison, E. R. 1981. Cosmology, the Science of the Universe, p287

[20] Layzer,  David. 1991. Cosmogenesis, the Growth of Order in the Universe (Oxford University Press, New York) p145

[21] Carroll, Sean M. The Cosmological Constant  (astro-ph/0004075 EFI-2000-13 Available at http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/Irr-2001-1/download/index.html)

[22] Physicist Sean Carroll’s website:  http://preposterousuniverse.com/

[23] Powell, Corey S. 2002. God in the Equation  (The Free Press, New York) p178

[24] Baryshev, Yurij V. Conceptual Problems of Fractal Cosmology (arXiv:astro-ph/9912074 v1  3 Dec 1999) p3 & p15

[25] Einasto, Jaan. The Structure of the Universe on 100 MPC Scales (arXiv:astro-ph/0011334 v1  17Nov 2000) p8-9

[26] Martin Jr., Roy C. 1999. Astronomy on Trial: A Devastating and Complete Repudiation of the Big Bang Fiasco (University Press of America, Inc, Lanham, Maryland)

[27] As described in: Jean-Claude Pecker, Some Critiques of the Big Bang Cosmology (J. Astrophys. Astr. 1997 18, p323–333)

[28] The name Dynamic Steady State Universe, selected to designate an equilibrium universe in which space expands but the universe itself does not, first appeared at the 2002 International Munich Symposium.

[29] Johan Masreliez: www.estfound.org/philosophical.htm

[30] Powell, Corey S. 2002. God in the Equation  (The Free Press, New York) p163

 



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