
(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is
now available.
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse
Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass,
gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes
—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.
This new work contains 310+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and
index. … Additional details.
(2016 December): “So easy to
understand” comment from an Australian engineer.
(2016 November): “LargeScale Structure of the Dynamic Steady
State Universe” has now been
published in the
American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6,
2016, pp.6577.
Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.
(2016 June):
New research paper The Nature of Gravitational
Collapse has
been published in the
American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2,
2016, pp.1533.
Abstract and Links:
—Another
major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has
uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to
energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency! As everything else in the DSSU, it is a
perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!
Have gravity waves really been detected?
Comments updated 2016 June: Comment #19
(2016426:) A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the
Hubbleexpansion parameter and the cosmicbackground temperature are the
most important elements for understanding the real Universe!
Letter and response.
(2016 March) What is the difference between a physical and a
mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether:
Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic.
Link to new Question & Answer.
The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is now available at the
Niagara Falls Public Library (Victoria branch). If you
live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book
from the Niagara Falls
Public Library.
Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the
subatomic realm, even into the subquantum realm where the roots of reality
reside, and into the domain of cosmicscale cellstructure and beyond to
infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of
gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’
harmonyofopposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate
vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang
mythology and who refused to join the explodingcosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and
index … Available from
CFAR Books.
My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science"
news story:
Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of
selfgenerated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what
LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained
interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system
(in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of
merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to
theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official
interpretation must conform to the Officiallysanctioned theory of gravity
—Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded
by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The
problem is the generalrelativitygravity interpretation, as is well known,
ignores the space medium!
Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism
of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s
bigbang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly
incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself,
how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity
supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question:
Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The
gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the
turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar
System).
Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aetherflow
waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19
(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’
Paradox Resolved for the Infinite NonExpanding Universe, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January).
Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe
that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence,
the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more
fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmicredshift mechanism, and its
theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, nonexpanding, perpetually regenerating
universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.
Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !
(2016 June)
Free download. Link to details:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence",
Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455473 (2015 Dec)
—Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang.
Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "wellwritten and incisive
article."
(2015Oct 6) Webpage added for article CosmicRedshift Distance Law Without c
Without H: –Comments &
Links– Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers
published.
(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many
invitations to join social media and professional networks.
Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there
is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research,
writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been
purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated
and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly
bankrupt bigbang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total
recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few
delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its
adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See
Section 5 of
the Discussion webpage
for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy
(2015 Aug:) The article
The Universe Is Infinite
(Part 1) has been revised.
(2015 July:)
Comments and questions from
a 14year old student.
LATEST RESEARCH PAPERS:
"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. (
Abstract and Links.)

"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite NonExpanding Universe"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. (
Abstract & download links.)

"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published
in
Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455473 (2015 Dec).
Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "wellwritten and incisive
article."

Published in the
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics,
AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies
Local highresolution PDF.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the firstever natural explanation for the cause of the
elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the
absurd concept of wholeuniverse expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and
exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very
same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!
Published Dec 2014 in the
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:
"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the
actual causal mechanism.
Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require wholeuniverse expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular
structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.
The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic
puzzle in a stepbystep construction of the Natural Universe. Published in
Physics
Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) "... the arguments are
wellmade. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer
(PDF download)
Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the
Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on
all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver
of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?!
(Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and
embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking: If
God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the
reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the
riddle of “First Cause”.

Glossary of Terms
used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:
Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology
(Updated 20157)
Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 20155)
Critique of Conventional Cosmology ...
comments relating to the 'preposterous' expandinguniverse paradigm.
Bafflement
—the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
—During the 20th century there was a decadeslong debate: The cataclysmic
expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never
been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic
nonexpanding universe. (Posted
2011 Oct)
Models of the Universe
—Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR
COMPARING THEORIES.
The Universe Is Infinite
(Part 1)
—overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.
The Universe Is Infinite
(Part 2)
—an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always
exist.
DSSU, The
NonExpanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance
—A long soughtafter goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is
independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The
present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its
validating agreement with Supernova data.
Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity
—Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force.
(Posted April, 2011)
Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites
(.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional
Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.
Dynamic Cosmic Cell
—The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion
of the selfsustaining, selfbalancing system.
Why
Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity
—“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his
relativity theories.”
Questions & Answers & Comments

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:
(2016 June) Free download.
Link to details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence,
Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455473 (2015 Dec)
—Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang.
Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "wellwritten and incisive
article."
The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic
puzzle in a stepbystep construction of the Natural Universe.
Published in Physics
Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download) "... the arguments
are wellmade. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer
for Physics Essays Journal
Revolutionary:
Olbers’
Paradox Resolved for the Infinite NonExpanding Universe, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January).
Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe
that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence,
the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more
fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmicredshift mechanism, and its
theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe"
(Journal pdf)
—details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014)
Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require wholeuniverse expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular
structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in
history” was between TWO expanding universes —two
hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same
foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let
alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing
difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)
The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology (Revised 2015)
LargeScale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in
the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6,
2016, pp.6577.
Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Spacemedium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance,
thus ensuring a nonexpanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain
the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in
our Universe.
CosmicRedshift Distance Law Without c
Without H –Comments &
Links– Simplifying the redshiftdistance formula by removing the
speedoflight constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining
agreement with observational evidence.
EXTERNAL LINKS:
Big Bang
Never Happened –Home Page and Summary
Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are
most interesting.

DSSU Theory:
Theoretical
Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This
introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes
culminating with the Natural Universe.
Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe
(pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four
postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the
causeofcauses paradox, explains the nonindependent nature of time, and
reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with
standard cosmology focusing on realworld viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The
Primary Process
The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of
Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract
& Reviews & Links) … This article reveals
the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics
and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in
Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in
Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)
Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"
Dynamic Cosmic Cell
—The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion
of the selfsustaining, selfbalancing system.
Unified Gravitation Cells
of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells
Space Flow
Equations and ExpansionContraction Rates (pdf) —This paper
explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU
theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.

ARTICLES on AETHER:
Documentary
movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
—High
resolution .mpg video.
—Low
resolution .wmv video.
The
Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology
—The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most
recent "rediscovery", in 2001, led to the longsought causal mechanism of
gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.
MichelsonMorley and the
Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the
historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and coverup that
hampered the Aether theory.
The History of
the Aether Theory
—The historic development of the
aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth
element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and
experimental evidence into the dualdynamic subquantum medium —the Essence of the Universe.
(Updated
20162)
Relativity of
Time in the AetherSpace of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.
DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to
AetherSpace —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication,
Physics Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010).
ABSTRACT
The Physical Nature of Length Contraction
—the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted”
through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple
derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is
presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects
and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments:
“This is amazing …” “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics
Research reviewer. Published in
Applied Physics Research journal
Vol.5, No.1
(2013
Feb).
Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts
of the speedoflight postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from
Physics Essays Journal
(Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011)
...
ABSTRACT
Basic  level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow:
PDF
Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of
research papers on the aetherdrift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:
DSSU Cosmic RedshiftDistance Relation (htm)
—Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using
a simple and elegant equation.
Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) How a dualdynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure
(published in AJAA in 2016).
—Presents the postulates and implications of regional spacemedium expansion and
contraction.
CosmicScale Structural Features Explained (pdf)
(Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Rightangled Walls of Galaxies.
The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU
—The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to
the natural Cellular Universe.
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies,
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics,
AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local
highresolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA
here.

GRAVITY:
The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by
C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of
Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3
(2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links.
Includes link to hiresolution PDF) "Revolutionary".
Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity
—Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 20119)
First ever, journalpublished paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery
–Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of
PEP, from
Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1,
p7587 (2010 Mar).
ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmicscale Dark Matter.
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery
(Color version)
–Ranzan
Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]"
professional reviewer.
Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU
—Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:
Why
Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity
(●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras)
—“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his
relativity theories.”
Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed
of Light
(Abridged version with links to Journalpublished version. Posted July 2013)
Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity.
A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of
PEP,
from
Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
— Abstract & Links & Reviews —
The Three Components of the SpeedofLight Postulate.
Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy:
The
Three Components of the SpeedofLight Postulate (pdf):
Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian
"Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from
Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1,
2013).
Relativity of Time in the Aether
Medium of the DSSU
—Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time
Resolving a Paradox in Special
Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of
PEP, from
Physics Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010).
ABSTRACT
How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)
—Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity.
(Supplementary Discussion)
DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to AetherSpace
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication,
Physics Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010).
ABSTRACT
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1)
—Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aetherspace relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2)
—How to convert abstractspace equations into aetherspace equations
Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in
Applied Physics Research journal
Vol.5, No.2
(2013 May).
LOCAL COPY:
Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing
between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)
"The big bang today relies on a growing number of
hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed inflation, dark
matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there
would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers
and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics
would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a
way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the
least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory.
..."
continues
...
A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology
signed by more than 400 Researchers.
For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org
or alternate
site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us
involved in replacing the unnatural expandinguniverse paradigm are aware of
the difficulties involved.
However,
other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing
persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit:
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made
by State and Statesponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions
of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish
these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used,
every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of
censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for
thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder." —Bradley R. Smith (2011)
"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the
world it is simply illegal.”
Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those
individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have
informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when
subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication
extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing
trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of
freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of
Human Rights.
"Every
year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world
are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into
exile or even murdered as a result of their work."
ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the
Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s
system of Internet censorship.” See
The Secret Behind SOPA
(2012Jan).
Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom:
https://battleforthenet.com/
Reporterjournalist
Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition,
arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own
website, as he
faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in
Section 318  320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue
No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech
by a braindead jury!
–Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s
Largest AntiMarxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December,
http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update:
Panel
Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham
Freespeech crusader Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia
Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny.
“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs
Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the
odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017
June (www.freenorthamerica.ca
…)
The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada lost its greatest
champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013,
Douglas Christie
passed away.
British Maverick Psychologist
jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians
getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard
(2013)
The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …
■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing
their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting
for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official
persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and
views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the
University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5)
without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong
when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to
examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his realitybased views, has been
denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of
Your Ward News was
stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a
video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various
socalled community leaders.
“The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free
and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept
■ American
Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy
suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what
people think and write and say.
The Continuing Struggle for Freedom
A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist
movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s
effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over
every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review
Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)
For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)

... about the author ...
© Copyright 20052017 by
Conrad Ranzan & DSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material
herein, please contact:
D S S U Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
16th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2017 July 17
Visits since mid2010 :
2017717 
 
Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU
Constructing the Universe
with Gravity Cells
Conrad Ranzan
Published on the Cellular Universe website (
www.CellularUniverse.org )
20098 rev20126

"The world is various. But many processes
in nature are more or less alike; amidst the differences in the world,
there are similarities, strong patterns, strange resemblances, ..."
–David Berlinski ^{
[1]}


1. Introduction
My purpose in this exploration is to show how the
Universe —specifically the Dynamic Steady State Universe— is
‘constructed’ of unified gravity cells and discuss some of their features.
In order to place the new cosmology into
perspective I will first draw attention to the ‘construction project’ of
cosmology that has failed.
In conventional cosmology the universe is assumed to
be a single cell. As such, it has a definable finite diameter —sort
of a visibilitylimit diameter. This diameter depends on the
Hubbleexpansion parameter and the evolutionary age of the universe. In
some versions of the Big Bang theory the cell was the size of a primordial
atom —much smaller than a speck of dust. ... Now when gravity theory is
applied to the conventional universe it is applied to the universe as a
whole —as if it were a single cell. The gravity of the cell is determined
by the contained massandenergy. Considerable effort has gone into
measuring and calculating the total matter content to determine whether the
expandingcell universe is closed or open —whether it will
eventually collapse in on itself or expand outward forever. This
singlecell view of the universe is the view held by the vast majority of
academics and promoted by the media and embraced by popular culture. It
leads to what astrophysicists describe as an unnatural universe; and some
have gone so far as to call it a preposterous universe. ^{
[2]}
In the new cosmology known as the Dynamic Steady
State Universe (DSSU) the universe is structured into a multicellular
natural arrangement. The cellularity is not a theory premise, not an
assumption. The cellularity is the logical outcome of the theory’s two
pairs of postulates. The four postulates specify the four processes that
act to form a selfregulating mechanism —a mechanism that sustains
the cosmic cell structure. ^{
[3]}
There are two levels of cells —the structural cell
level and the gravitational cell level. They are intimately connected to
each other —essentially they overlap (but they do not coincide). The entire
universe is divided into structural cells —cosmic in scale and closely
packed. Similarly the entire universe is divided into gravitational cells
—also cosmic in scale and closely packed.
Let us deal with the structuralcell level first. The
structural units will then guide us to the gravitational units.
2. The Cosmic Structural Cell
The theoretical shape of the structural
cells is surprisingly simple to determine. There are actually only three
ways by which a volume can be divided into ordered polyhedral cells
(identical units with no gaps between adjacent cells). One could use
hexahedra (cubes), truncated octahedra, or rhombic dodecahedra. These are
the three candidates for cosmic structural units available for
spacefilling packing.^{[4]}
We immediately eliminate the cube it is unstable when subjected to the
forces involved. That leaves the truncated octahedron and the rhombic
dodecahedron.




Fig. 1.
The three polyhedral cells capable of being ‘close’ packed, capable of dividing space —capable of
orderly cellularizing a volume. 

The choice of of a suitableshape depends entirely on
the type of force involved: When the forces of surfacetension are
involved then the cell tries to minimize the surface area. When the
force involved is that of "negative pressure" then the tendency is to
maximize the surface area. The truncated octahedron has a
surfacetovolume ratio of 5.315; the rhombic dodecahedron has a
surfacetovolume ratio of 5.345 (both expressed in terms of the
geometrical invariant: ratio = S/V^{2/3}). The difference is subtle
—so small that it only appears in the 3rd significant digit. Nevertheless,
this difference means that for equal volumes the truncated octahedron has
less surface area than does the rhombic dodecahedron.
Thus, surface tension cells,
striving to minimize their surface area, take the shape of truncated
octahedra. While negative pressure cells, striving to maximize their
surface area, take the shape of rhombic dodecahedra. Soap bubbles are
considered surface tension cells; thus they tend to be shaped as
truncated octahedra when packed together (although gravity causes
considerable distortion).
The cosmic cells of the DSSU are negative
pressure cells. The negative pressure is the manifestation of
the process of space expansion (according to Postulate #1 of DSSU theory).
Space expansion is the Primary process of the universe. Thus the
cosmic cells of the DSSU tend to be shaped as rhombic dodecahedra (and
not as truncated octahedra).^{[5]}
A word about soap bubbles. It should be
pointed out that soap bubbles are not regular in shape even when
experiments strive for constant volume. They tend to be highly irregular
tetrakaidecahedra.^{[6]}
The reason is that gravity induces film thickness distortion. However, it
is predicted that under weightless conditions soap bubbles will be shaped
as truncated octahedra (if equal volume bubbles are produced). The
truncated octahedron is, of course, a tetrakaidecahedron.
Back to the cosmic structural cells. Space expansion
sustains a central void region. Why this process is equated with negative
pressure is not easy to explain. It certainly seems counterintuitive but
such is the nature of dynamic space. It may be of help to think of the
region as being under tension (space is being ‘pulled’ apart, as it were).
There is a tension across the cell (along any diameter). In a moment we
will see what is aiding this ‘pull’ action.
Each cell, with its void, interfaces with twelve
others as each cell tries to maximize its volume and surface area. The
result is a twelvefaced structure —the rhombic dodecahedron. The result is
a cosmic cell with fourteen nodes.
Each node of this cell is a center of gravity —the
center of gravity of a galaxy cluster. The fourteen galaxy clusters are
linked by 24 filamentous arms. These arms are simply the extensions of the
various galaxy clusters. The entire network surrounds the central cosmic
void. (See Fig. 2.)




Fig. 2. Schematic view of an
isolated structural cosmic cell. 

Now, mentally draw lines through the structural cell
and join opposite centers of gravity; the tension mentioned earlier should
immediately become self evident. The tension is always present since the
nodal galaxy clusters never come together. Always keep in mind that the
overall cellsize has a certain degree of stability. And speaking of cell
size: Although the cells are discussed in rather casual terms, one should
not lose sight of the enormity of the scale involved. All cosmic cells have
dimensions in the range of 300 million lightyears.
The cell nodes are logically the centers of
gravitational cosmic cells.
3. The Cosmic Gravitational Cells
A striking feature of the structural cell is that
there are two distinctive types of nodes —distinguished by the number of
arms joined at a node. There are Major nodes and Minor nodes; six of one and
eight of the other. Now here is the amazing part: When one relates the
nodes to respective galaxy structures, one finds a fourbranch galaxy
cluster at Minor nodes and an eightbranch galaxy cluster at
Major nodes!
We have here the underlying reason for variation in size and density of
galaxy clusters. (The Platonic dodecahedron, of course, has all its nodes
identical; and for other reasons is unsuitable for modeling the universe.)
Real cosmic cells are never isolated; nodes are
always shared. The geometry of "closest" packing requires that these shared nodes must have
either four branches or eight branches, as shown in
Fig. 3.




Fig. 3.
Major nodes and Minor nodes of the externallylinked structural
cosmiccell. Nodes are linked outward to the surrounding dodecahedra so
that Minor nodes actually have four arms and Major nodes actually have
eight arms. 

Obviously, there must be two types of gravitational
cells. The geometry demands there be a distinct shape for each of the two
types of nodes. The fourarmed node requires a tetrahedron. The eightarmed
node calls for an octahedron. These two shapes, when combined, will totally
fill 3dimensional space (as they must). But unlike the cosmic structural
cells, the gravitation cells have no visible boundaries!
The tetrahedral
gravitational cell.
The center of gravity of a Minornode galaxy cluster coincides with
the geometric center of the tetrahedral cell. The four arms of the cluster
pierce the four sides of the tetrahedron (the arms are more or less
perpendicular to the tetrahedral faces). The vertices of the tetrahedron
extend deep into the four surrounding voids.
Fig. 4 attempts to show this arrangement; the fourth void (and
fourth vertex) is hidden from view.




Fig. 4. The
vertices of the tetrahedron extend deep into the surrounding voids. 

The next figure (Fig. 5)
provides representations (in perspective view) of the tetrahedral gravity cell;
its three images focus on: the cell’s geometry, the cell’s gravitation flow
lines, and the cell as an isolated gravitational field. The flow lines
represent the streaming of aether; they also represent the
trajectories of comoving matter. The flow lines clearly reveal the cell’s
four internal lobes. The four lobes act to funnel the spaceandmatter flow
towards the regional center of gravity.




Fig. 5.
Perspective views of an isolated tetrahedral gravity cell. The gravity
cell is a dynamic structure. Space and comoving material flow along
trajectories that form a four lobed three dimensional pattern (a
symmetrical pattern under idealized conditions). 

An immediate question is, Why
doesn’t the cell (or gravity field) collapse over time? The short
answer is that the voids just keep on expanding. That is, the voids are forever
supplying newly expanded aether to feed the flow. Furthermore, matter
itself is continually precipitating from, and within, aether and in this
way is further
feeding the flow.
Shown below is an idealized dynamic image of an
isolated tetrahedral gravity cell.




Fig. 6.
This animated image reveals the bulk
aether flow direction within a typical cosmicscale gravitation cell.
It is an Idealized representation (in two dimensions) of a
3dimensional tetrahedral unifiedgravity cell.
The paths
diverge (red lines) where space expands; and paths converge (blue
lines) where space contracts.
Note, however, that the aether flow rate —the speed of the flow—
is not being modeled; and neither is the extremely important acceleration of the flow. 

The octahedral gravitational cell.
Turning now to the octahedral gravity cell —the dynamic cell associated
with Major nodes (of the dodecahedral structural cell). What is the
associated pattern of lobes? Mentally place yourself at such a node. Use
Fig. 3 as a helpful reference. You are
surrounded by the eight arms of a Major galaxy cluster. But don’t be
misled. The lobes of gravity cells do not follow these structural arms.
The axes of the lobes are directed to void centers. Having
positioned yourself at the node it is possible to orient yourself in such a
way that (1) one void would be aligned above you and another below you, (2)
one void to your right and one to your left, and (3) one void in front and
another behind. You would be surrounded by six voids. And so, the
octahedral gravity cell has six lobes extending into six voids.
The following drawing (Fig. 7) shows,
in succession, the
shape, the lobes, and the trajectories of the octahedral gravitational
cell.




Fig. 7.
Octahedral gravity cell is a dynamic structure in which
aether and comoving material streams along trajectories that form a
sixlobed threedimensional pattern (a symmetrical pattern under
idealized conditions). 

4. How the Gravity Cells Fit Together
For a twodimensional representation of how gravity
cells fit together we could use the trefoil of
Fig. 4 and proceed to tile a sample region. The resulting
hexagonal shape is obvious, as
shown in Fig. 8 below. The hexagon
formed by joining the nodes (not the void centers) is, of
course, the twodimensional representation of the rhombic dodecahedral
structural cell.




Fig. 8.
Group of unified gravity cells are 'closepacked' together and reveal a
cosmic structural cell —the inner hexagon formed by the six nodes.
(All cells are shown in two dimensions and idealized). 

Now what about the tetrahedral and octahedral volumes?
Even though these volumes consist of the three types of dynamic space
—expanding, flat, and contracting— standard theories alone fail utterly.
The General Theory of Relativity struggles with the basic interaction and
configuration of the very same expanding, flat, and contracting space.
Meanwhile, Standard Cosmology is busy hypothesizing and adjusting a growing
number of parameters of its singlecell universe. Multicellularity has not
yet been recognized!
General relativity measures the geometry, or curvature,
of each volume of space —whether that volume is expanding, flat, or
contracting. But ...

Neither
relativity nor standard cosmological observations say anything about
how those volumes fit together to give the universe its overall shape
—its topology. ...Determining the topology requires some physical
understanding beyond relativity.
–JeanPierre Luminet (Scientific American, 2002)
^{[7]} 

You read that correctly. For the determination of the
shape and topology of our Universe some physical understanding beyond
standard cosmology, beyond relativity, is required! To say that
relativity (a powerful mathematical theory) requires a physical
something is a remarkable admission. Maybe what is required is the
physical something missing from Einstein’s relativity theory; that
essence substance often discussed on the Cellular Universe Website. Yes,
understanding is within grasp. But what a long detour it has been. ... If
only Einstein, those many many years ago, had not discarded the physical
aether; discrediting it as a superfluous relic of a prerelativistic age.
And this is why we turn to DSSU theory. It provides
the vital pieces of the puzzle for just such a physical understanding. It
tells us precisely how the three types of space fit together, how the “volumes fit together” to
form the characteristic pattern of each type of gravity cell. And further, DSSU theory then tells us how those gravity cells “fit together to give the
universe its overall shape —its topology.”
Here is a guide on how the tetrahedral and octahedral
volumes fit together. Think of the center of a void as a reference point.
This void, because of the geometry of the structural cell, is surrounded by 8
Minor nodes and 6 Major nodes. This, in turn, means that a void is
surrounded by 8 tetrahedral and 6 octahedral cells. In fact a total of 14
gravity cells meet at the reference point at the center of a void.
And the tetrahedral and octahedral cells do fit
together. The tetrahedron and octahedron comprise what is called a dual
spacefilling system.^{[8]}
In assembling the gravity cells it helps to realize,
firstly, that they all have faces consisting of identical equilateral
triangles; secondly, that an octahedron ‘touches’ another octahedron
edgetoedge; thirdly, that an octahedron ‘touches’ a neighboring
tetrahedron facetoface, and finally, that a tetrahedron ‘touches’ a
neighboring tetrahedron edgetoedge. These rules, along with a bit of cerebral effort, permit one
to visualize an assembly of all 14 fields. Use
Figure 9 as a guide.




Fig. 9. Assembly of the 14 unified gravitational fields
that penetrate and subdivide one structural cell. Each vertex (13 are shown, 5
are hidden behind) gives the location of a void center. The number of
vertices agrees with the number of voids (18) that surround one
dodecahedral structural cell. 

We normally think of the dodecahedral cell as being
surrounded by twelve others. The reason is that we associate each of the
twelve faces of one cell interfacing with a corresponding number of neighbors.
Actually our structural unit is linked to a total of eighteen others.
The gravity cells do the linking; they provide the dynamic bonding.
We have established that there are 14 gravity cells
associated with a structural cell. Let us sum the vertices of all 14 cells.
Each Minor unified field (tetrahedron) has 4 vertices that extend into 4
different void centers. Each Major unified field (octahedron) has 6
vertices that extend into 6 voids. Total vertices is (8x4) + (6x6) or 68.
Each of these vertices, of course, must terminate at a void center. We know
that 14 of these vertices meet at the center of the dodecahedron leaving
the remaining 54 vertices free to extend into the 12 surrounding units (the
12 units with which interfaces are shared). Each of these 12 dodecahedra
receives 4 of the field vertices. This should be self evident purely from
the fact that 4 nodal structures (of a rhombic face of a dodecahedron) are
shared between adjacent dodecahedra. But this allocation can account for
only 48 of the 54 external field vertices! Six of the field vertices
projecting from the subject cosmicbubble still need to be allocated. It is
not at all obvious; it happens that there are 6 additional cosmicbubbles
with which no interface surface is shared but with which one nodal
structure is shared, respectively. And so, the 14 fields of a dodecahedral
cell
join to a total of 18 surrounding others. Thus, the gravity cells of
a cosmicbubble extend into the obvious 12 surrounding units and also into 6
other units —one at each of the 6 Major nodal clusters.
5. Discussion of Unified Gravity
Gravity alone might be driving everything ...
–Nature 2003 July 3 ^{
[9]}
Why are the cosmic gravitating regions referred to as
unified gravity cells? There are several reasons.
The fundamental reason is that two kinds of gravity
effects are actually being combined. In technical terms the positive energy
field of L (the cosmological
constant) is combined with the negative energy field of conventional
gravity (contractile gravity). When I say “combined” I mean they are
separate regions of a single field. A gravity cell represents one gravity
domain encompassing both normal gravity and ‘antigravity’ regions.
The logical reason is that a single definition of
gravity serves to describe all regions of the cell. All regions of the cell
are accelerating towards a common core —the heart of the gravity cell. The
key word is acceleration. In a gravity field there must be acceleration.
Aether is accelerating along the trajectories (we visualize them as
flow lines) and likewise all the comoving matter.
Another way of looking at the unifying definition is
this way: Imagine placing a test object anywhere in the gravity cell. It
will, over the long term, tend towards the nucleus of the cell. Sprinkle
lots of test objects all over a vast region and notice the gradual
delineation of boundaries of relative emptiness. The boundaries of
almost emptiness separate the individual cells, as shown in
Fig. 8 above.
The isolation reason. Except for the exchange and flow
of radiation a gravity cell is totally isolated from the rest of the
universe. (In DSSU theory gravity is not considered to be a form of
radiation.) No object, no massive galaxy, no matter how supermassive it may
be, has any gravitational influence beyond its home cosmic gravity cell.
There is a simple and dramatic way to describe the unifying feature of a gravity cell.
A unified gravity cell defines that region of space (a more or less
symmetrical region) in which any and all comoving bodies are on a
common collision course. (See Fig. 10.)
The field lines are the trajectories, the comoving paths —diverging in the
Lambda portion of the gravity field and then converging in the
contractile portion of the field. The nodal supergalaxy —the focus of
the trajectories— is the common collision point. Bodies may temporarily
deviate from the purely comoving paths, as in the case of interface
interactions and collisions. But ultimately —always keeping in mind the
enormous multigigayear time scale— the fateful paths resume and the final
freefall collisions occur.




Fig. 10. The unified gravity
cell is the ultimate collision pattern. The
pattern consists of the largescale trajectories of
spaceandcomovingmatter through regions dominated by Lambda (Λ) and
the central region dominated by normal gravity. The paths, as they
course inward, diverge (red lines) where space expands; and converge
(blue lines) where space contracts. The drawing reveals three crucially
important properties:
(1) The central galaxy cluster has no gravitational
influence on anything outside this clearly defined gravityandΛ cell.
(2) Any comoving or freefalling particle (or body) is accelerated
towards the center of the cell by both Λ and gravity. Both effects act
in unison to hold the central galaxy cluster together.
(3) All the largescale trajectories meet at a supergiant galaxy; the
collision process is best described as the ultimate cannibalistic
implosion.
(Crosssection view: Red and blue region is the crosssection of an
idealized octahedral gravity cell. The dotted yellow lines are portions
of four structural cells.) 

6. Implications of Unified Gravity and Cosmic
Cellularization
There can be no doubt of the profound and farreaching
implications in the discovery that gravity and Lambda (G & Λ)
act in harmony and, through that harmony, help sustain cosmic cell
structure. Obviously, the discovery spells disaster for the conventional
worldview. The concept of G & Λ in harmony is the key to a Pandora's Box of devastating
consequences for all universe models based on general relativity. The naive
notion that our universe can be coded in a pair of equations as if the
universe is a single monolithic gravitational field is doomed. The
spacetime ontology of general relativity, used to model various
monolithic universes, will return to its obscure role as a mathematical oddity. Gravity
fields that extend to infinite, as the old theories claim, are doomed.
Doomed by quantized gravity gravity quantized into natural gravity
cells. With G & Λ working in harmony to bring about cluster cohesion there is
absolutely no need for mysterious dark matter. It means the demise
of dark theories. We may finally witness the end of over 30 years of
long fruitless searching; the end of speculations masquerading as science.
Then there is the implication for the central dogma of twentiethcentury cosmology: The expansion of the universe will seem pointless. If
the cosmic cells don’t expand then surely there is no reason for the
universe to expand. G & Λ are in
harmony. This is the key. Lambda and gravity in their easily understood
manifestations —space expansion and space contraction—
are in equilibrium.
The treatment of G & Λ as harmonious effects leads to finite gravity fields. These lead
to steadystate cell structure which leads to a nonexpanding universe ...
which leads us to a further implication. And this one will exact a heavy
toll. If, as we have seen, the universe does not expand then neither does
it evolve. Although processes and systems (and countless subsystems)
within the cells are perpetually evolving, the universe itself
is not evolving. The Universe simply is. Theories that say
otherwise will, in the light of reality, become untenable and will not
survive.
The evolving universe, in all its theoretical
variations, is not supported by logic and not supported by observations; it
is untenable. All Big Bang universe models are scenarios of evolving
universes. In fact, all expanding universe models are classed as evolving
universes. Thus, all are affected.
Academic cosmology is a grand collection of theories,
hypotheses, and speculations —all based on a common theme. Each member of
the collection represents one or another aspect of the
evolvingandexpanding universe. The focus is on finetuning the
abundant parameters of their explodingandchanging universe. Almost never
are the fundamentals questioned. Theories and research papers are endlessly
crossreferenced and stand in support of each other and the official theme.
What we have then is a vast collection of inbred theories nurtured by
Academic Cosmology. A most unnatural situation. No wonder outspoken
physicist and cosmologist Sean M. Carroll questions the naturalness of the
current Big Bang model^{[10]}
and refers to it as the preposterous universe.
In fact he sums up his extensive paper^{[11]} with a section heading in boldface
lettering: "Conclusions: the preposterous universe". Now the
meaning of preposterous is, according to my Webster dictionary, quite
clear: "Contrary to nature, reason, or common sense; utterly foolish;
absurd." And there it is, presented without any personal bias on my part, 20^{th}century
cosmology is contrary to nature!
I can’t help but wonder. Who believes this absurd
stuff —which I have collectively called Academic Cosmology!? (If I may
digress for a moment.) It is easy enough to come up with two types of
believers: There are the true believers, the ones who believe anything
official or authoritative or promoted by the massmedia; and there are
those who are paid to believe. But still I wonder. Maybe the Big Bang
really is more religion than science. Maybe author Wendy Kaminer is right
when she warns of “the Rise of Irrationalism” and a new dark age
undercutting reality in America. For the newdarkage believers, “The truth lies in what you feel, not in
what you know.” ... It is a worrying, even dangerous, trend.
It will be incredibly fascinating to witness how the implications will run their
course (assuming objectivism prevails). Particularly interesting will be
the abandonment of theories when the flawed foundation gives way.
Expandingandevolving universe theories, interdependent as they are, will
fall like dominoes. At some point the vast twentiethcentury
experiment with the single monolithic cell will come to an end. A new
revolution in cosmology will be upon us. It will become known as the 5^{th}
revolution in the history of cosmology.

Revolutions in the History of Cosmology
At the predawn of civilization mankind conceived of
a revolutionary Worldview in which gods created order from chaos
and conjured all things into being. For countless ages of man, the
Universe was ruled, and misruled, by equally countless gods
The second revolution witnessed the overthrow
of the rule by gods and the enthronement of the rule by natural laws.
Attempts to interpret the unpredictable motives and signs of deities
was replaced by interpreting the unchanging, and therefore, predictable
rules of nature. The cosmology of Ptolemy’s Geocentric system became
firmly established; and by the measure of longevity it was the most successful universe model.
Being wrong did not prevent it from enduring for about seventeen long
centuries.
The third revolution was the overthrow of
the Earthcentered system by the Heliocentric system. Historians
call it the Copernican revolution. The date was 1543; the heretical
document was ‘De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.’
Subsequent centuries saw a gradual realization that the universe was
noncentric, limitless and static. Some cosmologists saw it as boundless and
stable. The Universe was believed to be, for the most part,
unchanging.
The fourth revolution was the overthrow of
the Unchanging Universe by the Expanding Universe. In the early
part of the 20^{th} century the independent works of V.M.
Slipher, German astronomer Carl Wirtz, American cosmologist Howard
Robertson, and Edwin Hubble led to the pivotal discovery of the
expansion of space. The unscientific extrapolation of that observable
expansion led to various Big Bang and Steady State
expanding universes.
The fifth revolution is predicted to be the
overthrow of the expanding universe by the NonExpanding Cellular
Universe. At the forefront of this revolution is the Dynamic
Steady State Universe.
–CR

After the devastation, what remains of the old cosmology? ... One
pillar remains. The pillar that supports all modern cosmology —space
expansion. The process of the physical expansion of space,
that essential process first detected and interpreted in the
pioneering work of V.M. Slipher, Carl Wirtz, Howard Robertson, and
Edwin Hubble, will remain and continue to play a leading role. The
great pillar of expanding space will stand; and alongside will stand
the new pillar of spacecontraction in equal and harmonious stature.
The seeds of the new cosmology have been planted. The
revolutionary concept of the intrinsically cellular cosmos is growing.
Meanwhile, the breeches in the old cosmology grow ever wider; its claims undefendable; its flaws unrepairable. The overthrow of the
“preposterous” expanding universe by the natural cellular cosmos is
the 5^{th} revolution of cosmology.
* * * *
20098 rev20126 Copyright © by Conrad Ranzan Email:
Ranzan@CellularUniverse.org
www.CellularUniverse.org

Notes and References
 ^ David Berlinski, A Tour of the Calculus
(Pantheon Books, New York, 1995) p208
 ^
Sean M.
Carroll, The Cosmological Constant (astroph/0004075
EFI200013 Available at http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr20011)
Physicist Sean Carroll’s website: http://preposterousuniverse.com/
 ^
C.
Ranzan. 2009. The Story of Gravity and Lambda —How the Theory of
Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery, Physics Essays Vol.23,
No.1, p7587 (2010 Mar) (www.CellularUniverse.org/G2GravityLambda.pdf)
 ^
Peter Pearce, Structure in Nature Is a
Strategy for Design (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990) p41
 ^
It should be noted that the rhombic dodecahedron has a twin. All the main
features are the same except half of the 12 faces are trapezoids. As a
result,
there are some extralong arms and some extrashort arms. The structure is
called the rhombictrapezoid dodecahedron. And amazingly these two structures
still fit together totally (when packed together according to a basic
geometric asymmetry, there are no gaps in between). And the Major and Minor
nodes are still the same (6 of one and 8 of the other).
 ^
Peter Pearce, Structure in Nature Is a
Strategy for Design, p6
 ^ JeanPierre Luminet, et al., Is Space
Finite? (Scientific American Special Edition 2002: The Once and Future
Cosmos) p60
 ^ Peter Pearce, Structure in Nature Is a
Strategy for Design, p45
 ^ Nature News Service (Macmillan Magazines
Ltd) 2003 July 3, reporting on the work of S.M. Carroll, V. Duvvuri, M.
Trodden, and M.S. Turner, Is Cosmic Speedup due to New Gravitational
Physics? (http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astroph/0306438)
 ^ S. M. Carroll. 2005. Is Our Universe Natural?
(Paper: arXiv:hepth/0512148v1 13 Dec 2005)
 ^ S. M. Carroll. 2001. The Cosmological Constant (astroph/0004075 EFI200013
Available at http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr20011)
20098 (20126)

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